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Ownership Basis

On the basis of ownership, the sources can be classified into 'owner's funds' and 'borrowed funds'. Owner's funds means funds that are provided by the owners of an enterprise, which may be a sole trader or partners or shareholders of a company. Apart from capital, it also includes profits reinvested in the business. The owner's capital remains invested in the business for a longer duration and is not required to be refunded during the life period of the business. Such capital forms the basis on which owners acquire their right of control of management. Issue of equity shares and retained earnings are the two important sources from where owner's funds can be obtained. 'Borrowed funds' on the other hand, refer to the funds raised through loans or borrowings. The sources for raising borrowed funds include loans from commercial banks, loans from financial institutions, issue of debentures, public deposits and trade credit. Such sources provide funds for a specified period, on certain terms and conditions and have to be repaid after the expiry of that period. A fixed rate of interest is paid by the borrowers on such funds. At times it puts a lot of burden on the business as payment of interest is to be made even when the earnings are low or when loss is incurred. Generally, borrowed funds are provided on the security of some fixed assets.

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