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Period Basis

On the basis of period, the different sources of funds can be categorized into three parts. These are long-term sources, medium-term sources and short-term sources. The long-term sources fulfil the financial requirements of an enterprise for a period exceeding 5 years and include sources such as shares and debentures, long-term borrowings and loans from financial institutions. Such financing is generally required for the acquisition of fixed assets such as equipment, plant, etc. Where the funds are required for a period of more than one year but less than five years, medium-term sources of finance are used. These sources include borrowings from commercial banks, public deposits, lease financing and loans from financial institutions. Short-term funds are those which are required for a period not exceeding one year. Trade credit, loans from commercial banks and commercial papers are some of the examples of the sources that provide funds for short duration. Short-term financing is most common for financing of current assets such as accounts receivable and inventories. Seasonal businesses that must build inventories in anticipation of selling requirements often need short term financing for the interim period between seasons. Wholesalers and manufacturers with a major portion of their assets tied up in inventories or receivables also require large amount of funds for a short period.

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