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Constituents of Logical Reasoning


Before we move on to solving the questions, it is very imperative that we understand the constituents of the Logical Reasoning Questions and at the same time the skill-sets required to crack them.

Logical reasoning questions are designed to measure the students’ ability to understand the structure of relationships and to draw conclusions from it. Students will be asked to make deductions from a set of statements, conditions or rules that describe the relationships among various variables such as persons, places, things or events. These questions simulate the kinds of detailed analyses of relationships that management students must perform in solving problems. Additionally, they require the ability to reason clearly and deductively from a given set of rules or restrictions; all under a strict time frame.

Each logical reasoning question contains three separate parts:

  1. Scenario
  2. Rules and
  3. Question/s


The scenario introduces a set of variables—people, places, things or events involved in an easy to understand activity such as sitting in seats or singing songs.

Here is an example:

A postman has to deliver exactly seven letters—N, O, P, Q, R, S and T on seven days of a week; not necessarily in the same order. The seven deliveries must be made according to certain conditions.

In the above situation, there are two variable sets—the letters N, O, P, Q, R, S and T and seven different delivery positions, which would be numbered 1 through 7 for the different days of the week.

In the above situation, there are two variable sets—the letters N, O, P, Q, R, S and T and seven different delivery positions, which would be numbered 1 through 7 for the different days of the week.


The scenario is followed by a series of rules or conditions which impose specific restrictions upon the relationships among the subjects. Rules can also be seen as a set of statements that describe the relationships between the variables. An LR set may include as few as two or as many as ten rules or may be more. Besides, these rules or conditions specify the relationship between the different variables.

Here are the rules that accompanied the above given LR set:

  1. Letter P and Letter O have to be delivered on consecutive days.
  2. The postman cannot deliver letter O and letter S on consecutive days.
  3. Letter T has to be delivered on the fourth day of the week.
  4. The postman has to deliver S and N both before delivering letter Q.
  5. It is also given that Monday is assumed to be the first day of the week.

Rules also help us in providing a proper sequence of events or arrangement of several variables involved in the question. We will discuss more about ‘Sequencing and Arrangement’ in Chapter 4 of this section.


The rules are followed by a series of questions about the relationships defined by the conditions. The questions call for a deductive analysis and a right correspondence between the scenario and the rules. This third and final part of any LR set, tests the students’ knowledge about the relationships between the variables, the structural features of the given set, and the way these relationships and features change as the conditions in the set change.

As in QA problems, one and only one response can be proven beyond any doubt to be the correct one. In CAT, the number of questions per set normally ranges from one to six, although CAT does not follow certain pattern.

All initial rules or conditions are applied to all the questions given thereof. However, sometimes a particular question might introduce something new after suspending the parent information. Hence, students are expected to consider each question separately from the other questions. Do not carry over information provided in any particular question to the other questions.

Some of the sample questions pertaining to the above LR set are as follows:

Q 1. Which of the following lists an acceptable order of deliveries of letters?
Q 2. Which of the following is a complete list of the days on which letter O could be delivered?
  1. Wednesday, Friday
  2. Wednesday, Friday, Sunday
  3. Wednesday, Thursday, Friday
  4. Any day of the week except Saturday
Q 3. Which of the following cannot be true?
  1. Letter Q is delivered on Wednesday
  2. Letter Q is delivered on Friday
  3. Letter R is delivered on Wednesday
  4. Letter S is delivered on Tuesday

We will go through the solution of the questions given above after discussing the Skills set required to excel in the Logical Reasoning section.

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