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Shampoo is a liquid or cream used to lather and wash the hair. A hair care product used for the removal of oils, dirt, skin particles, dandruff, environmental pollutants to remove the unwanted build-up without stripping out so much sebum as to make hair unmanageable.


Shampoos were developed in 1930 with the advent of synthetic detergents, for laundary and for cleaning carpets and cars. Hair shampoos evolved in 1950 making it most widely used hair care product.The purpose of a shampoo is to effectively cleanse the hair and scalp.


The word shampoo originates from the Hindi word ‘chhampna’ meaning ‘and manageable after convenient, fragrant and easy cleaning, pleasing to press’.


Ideal shampoo- should leave the hair easy to comb, lustrous, bouncing foam, minimal skin/eye irritation, feels thick and/or creamy, low toxicity, good biodegradability, slightly acidic (pH less than 7), no damage/ repairs damage to hair. Shampoos usually are at pH 5.5 because at slightly acidic pH, the scales on a hair follicle lay flat making the hair feel smooth and look shiny. It also has a small amount of preservative action.


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