"Sleep apnoea", is defined as a temporary pause in breathing during sleep lasting at least (LQ)
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (Ref. Hari-18th ed., Pg- 2187)
This disorder is characterized by intermittent closure/collapse of the pharyngeal airway which causes apneic episodes during sleep. These are terminated by partial arousal.
1). By convention sleep apnea is defined by breath cessation for at least 10 seconds.
2). Most patients with sleep apneas have cessation for 20-30 seconds. The duration of breath cessation may be as long as 2-3 minutes.
3). Sleep apneas can be central or obstructive
1). Central sleep Apnea
Sleep apnea occurs due to transient cessation of neural drive to all respiratory muscles
2). Obstructive sleep Apnea
Sleep Apnea occurs due to transient occlusion of the oropharyngeal airway despite continued respiratory drive.
Clinical features: The typical patient is a obese Q, middle-aged man (or a post. menopausal woman) who presents because of snoring or daytime somnolence Q.
Poor sleep quality
1). Morning headache.
2). Decreased libido
3). ↓Cognitive performance
Extra Edge - Complications of OSA
1). Pulmonary hypertension;
2). Type II respiratory failure.
Polysomnography (which monitors
1). Oxygen saturation,
2). Airflow at the nose and mouth,
3). ECG, iv. EMG v. Chest and abdominal wall movement during sleep) is diagnostic.
1). Weight reduction
2). Avoidance of tobacco and alcohol
3). CPAP via a nasal mask during sleep is effective
4). Surgical procedures to relieve pharyngeal obstruction tonsillectomy, uvulopalatopharyngoplastyQ, or tracheostomy.