Male Genital Tract
A 9-yrs-old boy suddenly develops severe testicular pain. the testis is found to be markedly hemorrhagic due to testicular torsion. Which of the following mechanisms is primarily involved in producing this type of testicular infarction? (AIIMS Nov 2012)
|C||Decreased collateral blood flow|
a. Benign enlargement of the prostate is caused by benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and produces clinical symptoms of urinary frequency, nocturia, difficulty in starting and stopping urination, dribbling, and dysuria.
b. Histologically the hyperplastic nodules are composed of a variable mixture of hyperplastic glands and hyperplastic stromal cells.
c. Histologic signs of malignancy are not present.
d. The development of BPH is associated with increased age and higher testosterone levels.
e. BPH results from androgen induced glandular proliferation, but estrogen also sensitizes the tissue to androgens.
f. Urinary obstruction results because the inner, periurethral por tions of the prostate (the middle and lateral lobes) are affected most commonly.
g. BPH does not predispose the individual to cancer.
h. In contrast to the benign histology of BPH, the histologic signs characteristic of prostatic adenocarcinoma include small glands that appear “back to back” without intervening stroma or that appear to be infiltrating beyond the normal prostate lobules.
i. Histologically, these malignant glands are composed of a single layer of cuboidal epithelial cells, because the outer basal layer of epithelial cells, seen in normal and hyperplastic glands, is not present.
j. These malignant cells often contain one or more enlarged nucleoli.