Giant cell (Temporal) arteritis (GCA) (Ref: H-18th edition, Pg-2795)
1. Occurs in patients older than age 50.
2. Females >> males
3. Granulomatous arteritis of the aorta and its major branches, with a predilection for the extracranial branches of the carotid artery.
4. Often involves the temporal artery.
5. Headache is the most common presenting feature.
6. Fever jaw claudication, anemia can occur.
7. Often is associated with polymyalgia rheumatica (Pain in the shoulder and pelvic joints).
8. Vision may be involved due to involvement of retinal artery which is a branch of internal carotid artery.
9. Sudden blindness can occur.
10. Raised ESR is a characteristic feature.
11. Diagnosis is by temporal artery biopsy (Gold Standard Test)
12. Treatment - Steroids
Takayasu Arteritis (AIIMS Nov 09) (Ref: H-18th edition, Pg-2796)
1. Granulomatous inflammation of the aorta and its major branches.
2. Usually occurs in patients younger than age 50, mainly Asian females.
3. Asymmetric radial pulse and BP difference in the two arms is a feature.
4. Renal Artery Stenosis is a feature. (AIPG 2006)