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Craniovertebral (CV) Junction Anomalies

  1. Malformation Of Occiput Bone
    1. Basilar invagination
    2. Clivus segmentation
    3. Condylar hypoplasia
    4. Abnormal occipitoatlantal ligament
    5. Atlanto - axial fusion
    6. Aplasia of atlas / atlas-arches
  2. Malformation of Axis
    1. OS - odontoideum (dysgenesis of odontoid in which upper portion of odontoid is separated from base by a gap resembling ununited fracture)
    2. Ossiculum terminale
    3. Dens dysplasia
    4. lrregualr atlantoaxial segmentation
  3. CV Instability Occurs In
    1. Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia
    2. Achondroplasia
    3. Mucopolysaccharidosis storage disease
    4. Down’s syndrome
    5. Klippel - feil syndrome
    6. Dysplastic bone conditions
      1. Neurofibromatosis
      2. Osteogenesis imperfecta
    7. Arthritis
      1. Rheumatoid arthritis
      2. Ankqlosing spondylitis (rare)
  1. Management of Chronic Ankle Instability (old ligamentous rupture)
    1. Broadening of lowering of heel of shoe (in women)
    2. Applying lateral wedge to shoe heel (in men)
    3. Laced leather or neoprene ankle corset or stirrup brace taping
    4. Muscle strengthening program
    5. Brostrom procedure i.e. repair of anterior talofibular ligament.

Procedures using Peroneus brevis tendon to reconstruct anterior taloflbular and calcaneofibular ligaments (provides satisfactory results)

  1. Watson Jones technique (operation)
  2. Evans technique
  3. Elmslie technique

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