Coupon Accepted Successfully!


Bio Medical Waste


Schedule I

Categories of Bio- Medical Waste


Waste Category


Treatment & Disposal Option

Category No.1

Human Anatomical Waste

(human tissues, organs,body parts)



Category No.2

Animal Waste

(animal tissues, organs, body parts carcasses, bleeding parts, fluid, blood & experimental animals used in research, waste generated by veterinary hospitals/colleges, discharge from hospitals, animal houses)



Category No.3

Microbiology & Biotechnology Waste and other laboratory waste.

(Waste from clinical samples. Pathology, bio-chemistry, hematology, blood bank, laboratory cultures, stocks or specimens of micro-organisms live or attenuated vaccines, human & animal cell culture used in research & infectious agents from research & industrial laboratories. Waste from production of biological toxins, dishes and devices used for transfer of cultures.

Disinfection at source by chemical treatment* or by autoclaving/ microwaving followed by mutilation/ shredding** and after treatment final disposal in secured landfill or disposal of recyclable waste (plastic or glasses) through registered or authorised recyclers.



Category No.4

Waste sharps

(needles, glass syringes with fixed needles, scalpels, blades, glass etc. That may cause puncture or cuts. This includes both used & unused sharps)

Disinfection by chemical treatment* or destruction by needle & tip cutter, autoclaving or microwaving followed by multilation or shredding**, whichever is applicable and final disposal through authorized CBWTF or disposal in secured landfill or designated concrete waste sharp pit.


Category No.5

Discarded Medicines and Cytotoxic drugs

(waste comprising of outdated contaminated and discarded medicines)


Disposal in secured landfill or incineration***

Category No.6

Solid waste

(Items contaminated with blood & body fluids including cotton, dressing,solid plaster casts,linen,beddings,other material contaminated with blood)



Category No.7

Infectious solid waste

(waste generated from disposable items other than the waste sharps such as tubing, hand gloves. Saline bottles with IV tubes, catheters, glass, intravenous sets etc.)

Disinfection by chemical treatment* or autoclaving or microwaving followed by multilation or shredding** and after treatment final disposal through registered or authorised recyclers.


Category No.8

Chemical waste

(Chemical used in productions of biological, chemical used in disinfection as insecticides etc.)

Chemical treatment* and discharge into drains meeting the norms notified under these rules and solid disposal in secured landfill.


  1. Notes:
    1. Chemical treatment using at least 1 % hypochlorite solution or any other equivalent chemical reagent. It must be ensured that chemical treatment ensures disinfection.
    2. **Multilation/shredding must be such that so as to prevent unauthorised reuse.
    3. ***There will be no chemical pre-treatment before incineration. Chlorinated plastics/bags shall not be incinerated.
    4. Disposal of bio-medical waste by deep burial shall be prohibited in Towns & Cities. Disposal by deep burial is    permitted only in rural areas where there is no access to common bio-medical waste treatment facility, with prior     approval from the prescribed authority.The deep burial facility shall be located as per the provisions and guidelines      issued by central pollution control board from time to time.
    5. Liquid waste generated from laboratory, washing, cleaning, house keeping and disinfecting activities shall be treated so as to meet the discharge standards stipulated under these rules.
    6. Incineration ash (ash from incineration of any bio-medical waste) shall be disposed through secured landfill, if toxic or         hazardous constituents are present beyondthe prescribed limit as given in hazhrdous waste (Management, Handling      and Transboundary Movement) Rules, 2008


Color coading and type of container for disposal Of bio-medical waste


Color coading

Type of container to be used

Waste category number

Treatment option as per schedule-I


Non-chlorinated bags

Category 1,2,5,6




Non-chlorinated plastic bags/puncture proof container for sharps

Category 3,4,7

(4-Waste sharps)

(In the earlier rules, Solid wastes are of Red color)

As per schedule I (rule 7)


Non-chlorinated plastic bags container

Category 8 (Chemical waste)


As per schedule I (rule 7)


Non-chlorinated plastic bags


Municipal waste

Disposal in Municipal dump sites

  1. Notes:
    1. Waste collection bags for waste type needing incineration shall not be made of chlorinated plastics.
    2. Category 3 if disinfected locally need not to be put in containers/non chlorinated plastic nags.
    3. The municipal waste (like paper waste), Kitchen waste, food waste and other non infectious waste shall be stored in black colored containers/ bags and shall be disposed of in accordance with Municipal Solid Waste (Management and Handling) Rules 2000.


  1. Process: Mixing biomedical waste with cement and other substance before disposal, so as to minimize risk of toxic substances contained in waste to contaminate ground surface water-',
    1. Inertization is especially suitable for pharmaceuticals and for incineration ashes with high metal content
  2. A typical composition of mixture is:
    1. 65% pharmaceutical waste
    2. 15% lime
    3. 15% cement
    4. 5% water

BMW Management Treatment Modalities

  1. Mechanical Processes
    1. Compacting: Reducing size and volume of waste (Useful for general non-hazardous wastes)
    2. Shredding: Breaking the material into smaller pieces by grinding/ cutting/ granulation (Useful for plastics, rubber and soft metals)
    3. Landfill: Oldest method of waste disposal
    4. Two types: Open dump or Sanitary landfill
    5. Encapsulation: Filling containers with waste, adding an immobilizing material (plastic foam/bituminous sand/ cement mortar/ clay material) and sealing containers.

Inertization: Mixing biomedical waste with cement and other substance before disposal.

- Useful for pharmaceuticals and for incineration ashes with high metal content.

  1. Thermal Processes
    1. Heat disinfection: Boiling for 20 minutes
      1. Useful for pre-treatment of sharps and plastics waste Hot air oven: Causes sterilization and mutilation at 160°C
      2. Used for glassware, powders and oils impermeable to steam
    2. Autoclave: Steam-sterilization under pressure is a low-heat thermal process
      1. Waste is subjected to 121°C or 135°C
    3. Hydroclave: Steam-sterilization under pressure causes fragmentation of wastes.
      1. ​​Waste is subjected to 121°C or 132°C
    4. Microwave: Volumetric heating for microbial hazardous wastes using frequency of 2450 MHz and wavelength 12.24 nm
      1. ​​Waste destruction occurs by 'heat conduction'
    5. Incineration: High temperature dry oxidation process which reduces waste volume and weight
      1. ​​Waste is subjected to 850 ï 50°C and 1050 ± 50°C
    6. Plasma arc: Ionized gas (electrical discharges) at high temperature causes gasification and molecular dissociation of organic wastes
      1. ​​Waste is subjected to 2000°C
    7. Gamma irradiation: Useful for re-usable medical equipments and clothing.
  2. Chemical Processes
    1. Disinfectants: A disinfectant is a chemical agent, which destroys or inhibits growth of pathogenic micro-organisms in the non-sporing or vegetative state
    2. Disinfectants are applied to inanimate objects and materials such as instruments and surfaces to control and prevent infection.
    3. Antiseptics: An antiseptic is a type of disinfectant, which destroys or inhibits growth of micro-organisms on living tissues without causing injurious effects when applied to surfaces of the body or to exposed tissues.
  3. Biological Processes
    1. Composting: Land and cow dung (gobar) are used
    2. Vermi-composting: Earth worms (Eisenia foetida), land, matured cow dung (khad) and coconut husk are used - Not useful for non-biodegradable wastes
    3. Bio-digestion: Biodegradable kitchen waste or left over food of a hospital is used, which leads to production of manure and methane Useful for rural heath care institutions.
  4. Incineration
    1. Incineration: Is a 'high temperature dry oxidation' process, It leads to significant reduction in waste-volume and weight (up to 70-80%)
      1. Incineration does not require pre-treatment
      2. Biggest disadvantage of incineration: Generation of smoke
    2. Types of Incinerators:
      1. Double-chamber pyrolytic
      2. Single-chamber pyrolytic
      3. Rotary kilns
    3. Temperature in an incinerator:
      1. Primary chamber: 800° ± 50°C
      2. Secondary chamber: 1050° ± 50°C
    4. Characteristics of wastes suitable for incineration:
  1. Low heating volume
  2. Combustible matter> 60%
  3. Non-combustible solids < 5%
  4. Non-combustible fines < 20%
  5. Moisture content < 30%
  1. Wastes types not-to-be incinerated:
  1. Pressurized gas containers
  2. Reactive chemical wastes (large)
  3. Silver /Radiographic/ photographic wastes
  4. Halogenated plastics (PVC)
  5. Wastes with high mercury/cadmium content
  6. Sealed ampoules ampoules with heavy metals.
  7. Sharps
  8. Cytotoxic drugs

Mercury disposal

  1. Dispose mercury as a hazardous waste
  2. Never combine it with organic or inorganic waste
    - Never dispose it in sink/ drain
  3. Dispose off in 'Recycling units



Test Your Skills Now!
Take a Quiz now
Reviewer Name