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ESI Scheme: Updates


  1. ENACTMENT The ESI Act, 1948, has been amended vide ESI (Amendment Act, 2010 w.e.f. 1-6-2010 for enhancing the Social Security coverage, streamlining the procedure for assessment of dues and for better services to the beneficiaries. The salient features of the Amendments in the Act are as under:-
    1. A uniform threshold of 10 or more persons for coverage of factories has been prescribed vide ESI(Amendment) Act, 2010, and for counting 10 persons for initial coverage of a factory, all persons employed irrespective of their wage are to be counted.
    2. Enhancing age limit of dependant children for eligibility to dependants benefit from 18 years to 25 years;
    3. Extending medical benefit to dependant minor brother/sister in case of IPs not having own family and whose parents are also not alive;
    4. Continuing medical benefit to insured persons retiring under VRS scheme or taking premature retirement;
    5. Treating commuting accidents as employment injury;
  2. Coverage
    1. The wage ceiling for coverage of employees under the Act has been enhanced from Rs.10,000/- to Rs. 15,000 w.e.f. 1.05.2010.
    2. The ESI Scheme has been extended to Medical and Educational Institutions in most of the States.
    3. Also coverage of workers engaged in Cine & T.V. serial Production Houses/Studios and Sets.
    4. Daily rate of Sickness Benefit has been enhanced from about 50% to 60% of average daily wage. The daily rate of permanent disablement benefit and dependants benefit was enhanced from about 70% of wages to about 75% of wages. These daily rates are enhanced from time to time to protect the value of these benefits against rise in the cost of living index.
    5. Rajiv Gandhi Shramik Kalyan Yojana (Unemployment Allowance): Eligibility conditions for availing the Unemployment Allowance has been relaxed from 5 years to 3 years.
    6. The duration of benefit has been enhanced from 6 months to 12 months.
    7. Scheme for permanently disabled insured persons:- Permanently disabled persons working in factories and establishments covered under the ESI Act and drawing wages upto Rs. 25,000/- per month have been brought under the scheme w.e.f.1-4-2008. In order to encourage employment of disabled persons, the employers’ share of contribution in respect of such disabled employees will be paid by the Central Government for initial three years.

Payment of Conveyance Allowance to Insured Person @ Rs. 100/- per visit for submission of Life Certificate in PDB cases,




  1. Genome: The sum total of genetic information of an individual which is encoded in structure of DNA.
  2. Genomics: Is the study of human genome.
  3. Gene Therapy: Introduction of a gene sequence into a cell to modify its behavior
  • DNA Technology: Development of new diagnostic techniques such as restriction enzymes.

Eugenics and Euthenics

  1. Eugenics (Sir Francis Galton): Is a social philosophy which advocates the improvement of human hereditary traits through various forms of intervention (GENETIC MANIPULATION). 
    1. Negative Eugenics: Is aimed at lowering fertility among the genetically disadvantaged
    2. Abortions
    3. Sterilizations
    4. Other methods of family planning
    5. Positive Eugenics: Is aimed to encourage reproduction among the genetically advantaged
    6. Financial and political stimuli
    7.  Targeted demographic analyses
      - In vitro fertilization,
    8. Egg transplants
    9. Gene cloning
  2. Euthenics: Deals with human improvement through altering external factors such as education and the controllable environment, including the prevention and removal of contagious disease and parasites, environmentalism, education regarding home economics, sanitation, and housing (Environmental Manipulations).

Mendelian Diseases inheritance


Autosomal dominant traits

Autosomal recessive traits

1.  Achondroplasia

2.  Huntington's chorea

3.  Neurofibromatosis

4.  Familial polyposis coli

5.  Marfan's Syndrome

6.  Retinoblastoma

7.  ABO blood group system

8.  Hyperlipoproteinemia I, II, III, IV

9.  Polycystic kidney

10.               Hereditary spherocytosis

1.  Albinism

2.  Phenylketonuria

3.  Tay Sachs disease

4.  Alcaptonuria

5.  Cystic fibrosis

6.  Galactosemia

7.  Hemoglobinopathies

8.  Maple syrup urine disease

9.  Megacolon (Hirschsprung Dis)

Sex-linked dominant traits

Sex-linked recessive traits

  • Vitamin-D  resistant rickets
  • Blood group Xg
  • Familial hypophosphatemia
  • Hemophilia type A & B
  • Duchenne muscular dystrophy
  • Color blindness
  • G6PD deficiency
  • Hydrocephalus
  • Retinitis pigmentosa


Hardy Weinberg fails if:

  1. Small populations
  2. Dynamic populations
  3. Non-random mating
  4. Assortative mating
  5. Mutations
  6. Natural selection
  7. Gene flow
  8. Genetic drift
  9. Migration

Hardy Weinberg Law

  1. Hardy Weinberg Law: States that the genotype frequencies in a population remain constant or are in equilibrium from generation to generation unless specific disturbing influences are introduced
    1. Genetic equilibrium (HW law) is a basic principle of population genetics; the entire principle is based on Mendelian genetics
    2. HW law assumes that human population is static
  2. Hardy Weinberg is only applicable for:
    a.  Infinitely large populations

    - Random mating populations
    - Static populations
  3. Hardy Weinberg fails if:
    1. Small populations
      - Dynamic populations

      - Non-random mating
      - Assortative mating
      - Mutations
    2. Natural selection (mortality selection, fecundity selection)
      - Gene flow
    3. Genetic drift
    4. Migration

Human Genome Project (HGP)

  1. Human Genome Project: HGP is an international scientific research project  
    1. Primary goals are to determine the sequence of chemical base pairs which make up DNA and to identify the approximately 25,000 genes of the human genome'
      - Secondary goals: To understand human genome and complete a map of all findings
    2. Goals of the original HGP were not only to determine more than 3 billion base pairs in the human genome, but also to identify all the genes in this vast amount of data.
  2. Project began in 1990 initially headed by James D. Watson:  
    1. Ongoing sequencing led to the announcement of the essentially complete genome in April 2003
    2. Part of the project is still ongoing, although a preliminary count indicates about 22,000-23,000 genes in the human genome:
  3. The Human Genome Diversity Project (HGDP): A spin off research aimed at mapping the DNA that varies between human ethnic groups, to date has yielded new conclusions.
    In the future, HGDP could possibly expose new data in disease surveillance, human development and anthropology. HGDP could unlock secrets behind and create new strategies for managing the vulnerability of ethnic groups to certain diseases. It could also show how human populations have adapted to these vulnerabilities.


  1. Amniocentesis: Examination of a sample of amniotic fluid makes possible the prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal anomalies and certain metabolic defects; The procedure can be used as early as 14th week of pregnancy when abortion of affected fetus is still feasible
    1. Culture and karyotyping of fetal cells from amniotic fluid is used for diagnosis of fetal anomalies
    2. Biochemical analysis of amniotic fluid is used for diagnosis of metabolic effects
  2. Amniocentesis is indicated in following circumstances-:
    1. A mother aged> 35 years (high risk of Down's Syndrome)
    2.  Patients who have had a child with Down's Syndrome or other chromosomal anomalies
    3.  Parents known to have chromosomal translocation
      - Patients who have had a child with metabolic defect

      - When sex-determination is warranted.


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