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Disorders associated with impaired glycolysis

  1. Pyruvate kinase deficiency: Hemolytic anaemiaQ
  2. Hexokinase deficiency: Deficiency of this enzymes leads to low concentration of 1,3-BPG which is precursor of 2,3-BPG.  Consequently, the hemoglobin of these patients with low level of 2,3 BPG has high oxygen affinity, oxygen saturation curve is shifted to left.
Extra Edge
  1. Glycolysis can function anaerobically by regenerating oxi­dized NAD+ (required in the glyceraldehyde-3-phos­phate dehydrogenase reaction), by reducing pyruvate to lactate.
  2. Lactate is the end product of glycolysis under anaero­bic conditions (eg, in exercising muscle) or when the metabolic machinery is absent for the further oxida­tion of pyruvate (eg, in erythrocytes).



Extra Edge
  1. Glycolysis is regulated by three enzymes catalyzing nonequilibrium reactions: hexokinase, phosphofruc­tokinase, and pyruvate kinase.
  2. In erythrocytes, the first site in glycolysis for genera­tion of ATP may be bypassed, leading to the forma­tion of 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate, which is important in decreasing the affinity of hemoglobin for O2
  3. Pyruvate is oxidized to acetyl-CoA by a multi enzyme complex known as pyruvate dehydrogenase complex


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