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Inulin Like Fructan Prebiotic (ILF)

  1. Prebiotics are nondigestible food ingredients that should pass harmlessly through upper gastrointestinal tract to be a substrate for advantageous probiotic agents (colonic bacteria) in the large bowel. These beneficially affect the host by selectively stimulating the growth or activity of health promoting colonic bacteria like lactobacilli & bifidobacteria.
  2. Inulin is a polysaccharide of fructose (& so a fructosan) found in roots & tubers of dandelions, dahlias and artichokes. It is easily soluble in water and is used to determine GFR. But it is not hydrolyzed by intestinal enzymes and acid. So non digestible oligosaccharide (NDO)- inulin like fructans are most widely used & studies prebiotics.
  3.  Inulin like fructans are non digestible in upper digestive tract b /0 their f3-configuration of anomeric C2O. Their Beta glycosidic bonds (linkages) resist the hydrolysis by enzymes & acid. As human digestive enzymes -amylase (in saliva) and disaccharidases (like isomaltase, maltase, sucrase, lactase synthesized by small intestinal mainly jejunal mucosal cells) can break (1 → 4) and (1 → 6) glycosidic bonds respectively; trehalase breaks (1→ 1) bond
Important Points to Remember
Recent Advances: TIGAR and Cancer
  1. TIGAR stands for TP53 (tumor protein 53) induced glycolysis and apoptosis regulator. TIGAR regulates glycolysis and apoptosis and is induced by activation of the TP53 gene.
  2. The TP53 gene encodes the tumor-suppressor protein p53, a transcription factor that regulates the expression of several proteins, including TIGAR, that prevent the development of cancer.
  3. TIGAR is structurally related to the bisphosphatase domain of the bifunctional enzyme 6-phospho­fructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase.
  4. Induction of TIGAR by p53 reduces fructose 2,6-biphosphate which  reduced 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase activity which in turn reduces flux through the glycolytic pathway.
  5. Since glycolysis is important for the survival and growth of cancer cells up-regulation of TIGAR by P53 reduces the likelihood of tumor formation.
  6. Loss of this regulatory mechanism as a consequence of mutation m the TP53 gene is common in cancer. 
Carbohydrates :


The minimum number of ALDEHYDE OR KETO GROUP is






The minimum number of hydroxyl group required in a carbohydrate is




The minimum number of carbon atoms required in a carbohydrate is




Isomerism of glucose :

Anomers                –  e.g. ï and ï glucose based on orientation of H and OH groups around C1 in cyclic form

Epimers                 --  Based on difference in orientation of H and OH around single carbon except C1.  Eg.  

                                    Glucose and galactose ; glucose and mannose

Enantiomers         –   mirror images isomers e.g. D Glucose and L Glucose

Diasteriomers       –   non mirror image isomers e.g. Galactose and Mannaose


D-Fructose has optical rotation of


- 92ï and ï it is laevorotatory


Neuraminic acid is derivatives of


N Acetyl mannose and pyruvic acid                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   


Examples of Non reducing disaccharides are


Sucrose (Glucose-Fructose) and Trehalose




Glucose + Glucose


Disaccharidases enzymes are of 2 types


ï - glucosidases (sucrase, maltase)

ï - galactosidase (lactase)



Glucose forms different oxidation products under different conditions which are


Gluconic acid (when C1 is oxidized )
Glucuronic acid (when C6 or primary alcoholic group is oxidized),
Glucaric ( both C1 and C6 are oxidized)


Homopolysaccharides of glucose with an

a. Unbranched structure is

b. Branched structure are




Starch & glycogen


The straight chains of starch (amylose component) and cellulose are respectively made of


ï - (1 ï  4) and ï (1ï 4) glycosidic linkage


Mucins are rich in


O-linked glycoproteins.


 ABO Bloo d group antigens are glycoproteins &  contain deoxysugar


L- Fucose which is the 6 deoxy ï D Galactose


Proteoglycans are proteins with covalently linked




Constituents of glycosaminoglycans are



Amino sugars and Uronic acid


Glycosaminoglycan molecules are




Branching enzyme:


Amylo (ï 1, 4 ï 1, 6 ) transglycosylase or glucosyl ï  4 : 6 transferase


Debranching enzyme:


ï l, 4 ï 1,4 Gluco transferase &  ï1 6 glucosidase

Enzyme Deficiency in:
  1. Niemann-Pick disease-  Sphingomyelinase
  2. Tay Sach’s disease-  Hexosaminidase A
  3. Sandhoff’s disease-  Hexosaminidase A & B
  4. Farber’s disease-  Ceramidase
  5. Fabry-  α-galactosidase
  6. Krabbe’s disease-  β-galactosidase
  7. Gaucher’s-  β-glucosidase

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