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Incubation period: 7-10 days

  1. Human beings only reservoir.
  2. Droplet infection
  3. Common in pre school age group
  4. Prodrome :lasting 4-5 days involvement of epithelial linings characteristic of measles .
  5. Koplik spots: whitish grayish spots on inner surface of cheeks opposite 2nd  lower molar ,appear on 2-3 days and disappears on 2-3 day of rash.
  6. Rash appears on day 4 with increasing fever.
  7. Disappears in 4-5 days
  8. Histopathologically multinucleated giant cells in epidermis and Warthin Finkeldey cells in the reticuloendothelial system. 

Diseases associated with measles virus:

  1. SSPE
  2. Multiple sclerosis
  3. Crohn disease
  1. Respiratory tract :otitis media (most common complication)
    1. LAP
      1. Laryngitis
      2. Laryngotracheitis
      3. Interstitial pneumonitis resulting from measles virus takes the form of Hecht giant cell Pneumonia.
      4. Bronchopneumonia
      5. Bronchiectasis
      6. In the hemorrhagic type of measles (black measles), bleeding may occur from the mouth, nose, or bowel 
  2. Neurological
    1. Encephalitis with 1 week of illness : 1/3rd die and 1/3rd left with severe neurological sequelae.
    2. SSPE: occurs 3-8 yrs after primary measles infection.
      1. Persistent measles infection or on autoimmune response.
      2. 100% fatality within 6 months of diagnosis.
      3. Presenting features include myoclonic jerks and mental deterioration.
      4. Measles virus cannot be isolated from CSF or blood.
      5. CSF ELISA for antibodies is positive. 
  3. GIT: Persistent diarrhea
    1. Appendicitis Q
    2. Hepatitis
    3. Ileocolitis
  4. AGN.
  5. Malnutrition
  6. SJ syndrome
  7. DIC

Treatment :

  1. Maintain hygiene    
  2. Analgesics    
  3. 1 age specific dose of vitamin A

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