Medical and Surgical Complications in Pregnancy
Congenital Infection affecting the fetus with minimal teratogenic risk is (AIPG 2008)
1. Intrauterine infection with HIV has minimal teratogenic effects as compared to the other infections like Rubella, Varicella and CMV.
2. Intrauterine infections, usually viral, can produce severe damage to the fetus.
3. One of the commonly discussed group of infections is TORCH.
T – Toxoplasmosis / Treponema
O – Other agents, such as Coxsackie virus, Listeria and human parvovirus
R – Rubella
C – Cytomegalovirus / Chlamydia
H – Herpes simplex / Hepatitis
4. CMV is the most common congenital infection. It results in microcephaly, choroidoretinitis, cerebral calcification, sensorineural deafness, psychomotor retardation etc.
5. Rubella infection mainly results in cataract, deafness and cardiac lesions. Other features are cerebral palsy, microcephaly, mental retardation, microphthalmia, etc. Abortion or still birth my also occur due to Rubella infection.
6. Other important agents producing damage to the developing fetus are the chickenpox (Varicella) and HIV virus.
7. Varicella (chicken pox) results in cerebral cortical atrophy, cerebellar hypoplasia, limb hypoplasia, etc.
8. HIV infection can lead to prematurity and growth retardation. Death may occur due to respiratory infection or overwhelming infections.