Consumption of uncooked pork is likely to cause which of the following helminthic disease: (AIIMS May 2009)
a. T. solium and Trichinella spiralis infections are associated with consumption of uncooked pork.
c. The definitive host is man. The habitat in man is the small intestine.
d. The intermediate host is pig.
e. When humans ingest undercooked pork that contains cysticerci of T solium, the scolex evaginates from the cyst and develops into an intestinal tapeworm. The tapeworm grows to a length of up to 10 meters and has hundreds of proglottids. Free eggs or whole proglottids are released periodically into the stool of the carrier and can survive in the environment for many months.
f. When pigs ingest the proglottids or eggs, the eggs hatch, penetrate the pigs' intestinal wall, and spread to skeletal muscle, especially the neck, tongue, and trunk. There, the larvae mature into encysted cysticerci over 2-3 months.
g. The life cycle is completed when humans ingest inadequately cooked pork that contains viable cysticerci or ingest eggs. Ingestion of encysted pork does not directly cause cysticercosis;
h. Human cysticercosis can result after ingestion of food contaminated with T solium eggs or by autoinfection. The cystic larval stage that normally occurs in pigs develops in the human host and spreads to the skeletal muscle and brain. In this situation, the human becomes the end intermediate host. The clinical manifestations commonly result when an inflammatory response develops around a degenerating cysticercus.
Serological diagnosis of cysticercosis.
a. Two most commonly used tests are: enzyme-linked immunosorbent a say (ELISA), and enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB).
b. These tests are used for diagnosis of cases of NCC and for the epidemiological study of cysticercosis.