Coupon Accepted Successfully!


Non-Communicable Diseases

  1. Blindness
    1. Blindness can be defined in two ways:
      1. The National Program defines a person as blind if he/ she cannot see the top line of the Snellen’s chart (or fingers) clearly, from a distance of 6 metres, with both the eyes tested independently, or if the field of vision is reduced to < 20 degrees around central fixation.
      2. The WHO defines a person as blind if the top line of the Snellen’s chart cannot be read from a distance of 3 metres or if the field of vision is < 10 degrees around central fixation.



NPCB, India

Low vision



Category I

<6/18 – 6/60

Low vision

Category II

<6/60 – 3/60

Economic Blindness (Work vision )




Category III

<3/60 – 1/60

Social Blindness (Walk vision)

Category IV

<1/60 – PL+

Manifest Blindness

Category V

PL -

Absolute Blindness

  1. Important Points
    1. For estimating the prevalence of blindness at community level, generally the field of vision is not considered.
    2. Though theoretically best corrected vision should be considered, since this is generally not possible in a survey, presenting vision (vision with glasses if a person is routinely using the same or without glasses if a person is not wearing glasses regularly) is considered.
    3. The most common cause of blindness in India is cataract. Surveys in the country show that cataract is responsible for 55-80% of blindness in India. The other important causes are uncorrected refractive errors, glaucoma, corneal scars (including trachoma) and childhood blindness (due to vitamin A deficiency, measles, congenital causes, retinopathy of prematurity, etc.).
    4. Blindness which is either curable (treatable) or preventable is called avoidable blindness as it can be completely avoided.
​​Vision 2020:
  1. The ‘Right to Sight’ is the common agenda launched by the WHO and Task Force of International organization to combat blindness, as 80% of global blindness is avoidable.
  2. Five conditions that have been identified as immediate priorities within VISION 2020 are -

Refractive errors and Low vision.
Childhood blindness

The ‘SAFE’ strategy has been developed to combat TRACHOMA
It is being applied in affected areas
SAFE’ is the acronym for

Facial cleanliness, and
Environmental improvement.

It is expected that through ‘SAFE’ strategy it will be possible to eliminate trachoma by year 2020.

Vision 2020: The Right to Sight –

  • It is a global initiative to reduce avoidable (preventable and curable) blindness by the year 2020. India is also committed to this initiative. The plan of action for the country has been developed with following main features:
  1. Target diseases are cataract, refractive errors, childhood blindness, corneal blindness, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy.
  2. Human resource development as well sas infrastructure and technology development at various levels of health system. The proposed four tier structure includes Centres of Excellence (20), Training Centres (200), Service Centres (2000), and Vision Centres (20,000).
  1. Hypertension
    1. JNC VII classification of hypertension


SBP (mm Hg)

DBP(mm Hg)











> 160

> 100

  1.  The above classification is applied for person above age of 18 years.
  2. Non modifiable risk factors of HT:-
    • ​​Age
    • Genetic predisposition
  3. Modifiable risk factors
    • ​​Obesity’
    • Salt Intake directly proportional
    • Saturated fats
    • Alcohol
    • Low Physical activities
    • Environmental stress
  1. Steps Approach (AIIMS May & Nov’09, AI’09)Steps is an approach used for assessment of risk factors of non communicable diseases. It is a three pronged approach comprising of the following:
    1. Step 1 – Detailed history of the patient (eg: h/o tobacco, alcohol consumption etc).
    2. Step 2 – Anthropometric measurements & clinical examination eg: BMI, Waist circumference, waist hip ratio etc.
    3. Step 3 – Biochemical tests eg: Blood sugar, serum lipid profile etc.
  1. Cancers
    1. Cancers of the stomach, rectum, colon, esophagus and oral cavity are the most common cancers among males in India.
    2. Cancers of the uterus (including cervical cancers) and breast are the most common cancers among women in India.
  1. National Cancer Control ProgrammeThe National Cancer Control Program has the following components:
    1. Control of tobacco related cancers using a primary prevention approach. This also includes effective anti-tobacco control measures.
    2. Early detection, diagnosis and treatment of cervical and oral cancers.
    3. Augmentation of therapeutic facilities.
    4. Research
    5. Evaluation of the strategies adopted under the program.

Test Your Skills Now!
Take a Quiz now
Reviewer Name