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  1. Milestones:
1951  -  India is the first country in the world to launch the Family Planning Programme with a clinic based approach
1956-61 -  Sterilization methods introduced as part of FP Programme
1960’s - IUD introduced
          - Cafeteria approach introduced
1966  -  Department of Family Welfare formed.
         - Integration of Family Planning services with medical and health services

        - All India Post-Partum Programme started
1972 - MTP Act comes into force
Vit 5 Year Plan – (1973-77): Minimum Needs Programme introduced which bracketed
                                Family Planning with health and nutrition
1978 - Launching of Primary Health Care
1978 -  Name of Programme changed to Family Welfare Programme

VIth five Year Plan: Efforts made to increase community involvement
1985 : UIP launched
1986 : ORT launched
1992 : CSSM programme launched
1996 : Target free approach (TFA) under Family Welfare Programme started
1997 : TFA renamed as Community Needs Assessment Approach (CNAA) ; RCH Project launched

Paradigm shift in Policy under RCH
  1. Withdrawal of financial incentives to providers with the objective of improving quality of care as the incentive for utilization of services.
  2. Introduction of ‘Essential Reproductive and Child Health Programme’ that includes Family Planning, Safe motherhood and child survival and management of RTI/STD services and adolescent health.
  3. Direct financing of sites through the Standing committee On Voluntary Action (SCOVA) with the objective of avoiding delays in implementation due to budgetary constraints.
  4. Involvement of NGOs and private sector in the delivery of services in the public sector.
  5. Involvement of Indigenous System of Medicine (ISM) Practitioners in delivery of RCH services to improve the access to services, especially in the rural and tribal areas.
Recommendations of RCH PROGRAMME BY Government of India
The main highlight of the RCH Programme are:
  1. The Programme integrates all interventions of fertility regulation, maternal and child health with reproductive health of both men and women.
  2. The services to be provided will be client centered, demand driven, high quality and based.
  3. The programme envisages up gradation of the level of facilities for providing various interventions and quality of care. The First Referral Units (FRUs) being set up at sub-district level will provide comprehensive emergency obstetric and newborn care. Similarly RCH facilities in PHCs will be substantially upgraded.
  4. It is proposed to improve facilities for obstetric care, MTP and IUD insertion in the PHCs. Also for IUD insertion in Sub-Centres.
  5. The Programme aims at improving the outreach of services primarily for the vulnerable groups of population who have till now been effectively left out of the planning process including involvement of NGOs and Voluntary Organizations.
Service components of RCH programme
  1. Reproductive Health
    1. Antenatal Care
      1. Registration of ANC:- all pregnancies should be registered as early as 12 to 16 weeks of pregnancy.
      2. Providing ANC to pregnant mothers by at least three visits including 2 doses to T.T. immunization.
      3. Detection and treatment of anaemic pregnant mothers.
      4. Timely detection and referral of high risk pregnant mothers.
    2. Natal care
      1. As far as possible, all deliveries should be conducted in hospitals.
      2. As far as possible, the domiciliary delivery should be assisted by LHV ANM or by trained birth attendants.
      3. Detection and referral of high risk labour cases.
      4. Identification of trained Dai and organizing Dai training programmes.
      5. Provision of Dai delivery Kits (DDKs)
    3. Postnatal Care
      1. Three postnatal check-ups of mothers after delivery
      2. Spacing – atleast three years space between two pregnancies must be encouraged.
  • Prevention of unwanted pregnancy through various contraceptive services e.g. Tubectomy, Vasctomy, IUD, Oral pills, Condoms distribution etc.
  • Safe Abortion (MTP) – by expanding facilities at authorized places by trained personnel.
  • Management of RTI/STI through syndromic approach.
  1. Child Health and New Borne Care
    1. Growth monitoring of new born
    2. Detection and referral of high risk new born babies
    3. Neonatal resuscitation wherever facilities are available and by education of Dai and community.
    4. Prevention and management of vaccine preventable diseases viz TB,. Measles, Polio myelitis, Whooping cough, Diphtheria & Tetanus.  (Eradication of Poliomyelitis, by Pulse Polio Immunization campaign and by effective surveillance)
    5. Management of Acute Respiratory Infections.
    6. Management of Diarrhea through Oral Rehydration Therapy.
    7. Prevention of & control of vitamin A deficiencies.
    8. Detection and treatment of anemia
Integrated approach
  1. Various programs with converging aims are now packaged into one common RCH program, these include:
  2. Child survival & safe motherhood program
  3. Universal immunization program
  4. Family planning program
  5. Acute respiratory infection control program Maternal health
  6. Oral rehydration therapy program
  7. Reproductive tract infections / sexually transmitted infections control activities

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