During a trip to Afghanistan, you are asked to see a young woman with the following lesion on her face. She is otherwise healthy and states that the lesion has been there for 3 weeks. Other family members have had similar lesions on their arms and feet. She has no shortness of breath, fevers, chills, or weight loss. This is the only lesion on her body. Based on local epidemiology and light microscopy of a skin biopsy, you diagnose leishmaniasis. What is the mode of transmission of this parasite? (AIIMS May 2013)
|A||Inhalation of spores|
|D||Tsetse fly bite|
1). Lesions of cutaneous leishmaniasis progress from papules to plaques to atrophic scars with central necrosis and ulceration. Multiple primary lesions, regional adenopathy, and secondary bacterial infection are variably present.
2). Leishmania parasites are transmitted by the bite of the female phlebotomine sandfly.
3). While probing for a blood meal, sandflies regurgitate the parasite’s flagellated promastigote stage into the host’s skin, which eventually get phagocytized by macrophages.
4). The larvae of Trichinella spiralis are found in undercooked pork and game meat and cause the syndrome of trichonosis. Inhalation of the spores of Bacillus anthracis causes the pulmonary form of anthrax infection.
5). The tsetse fly is the vector for the trypanosome parasite, which can cause sleeping sickness.
6). Mosquito bites transmit a number of infections, most notably malaria and a variety of viral infections such as viral encephalitis.