Fetal-hydantoin syndrome is seen in case of (LQ)
a. Dilantin is the brand name of the drug phenytoin sodium, commonly used in the treatment of epilepsy. About one third of children whose mothers are taking this drug during pregnancy develop minor face and limb birth defects.
c. The entire group of defects caused by the drug's teratogenicity is called Fetal Dilantin Syndrome.
d. It may also be called congenital hydantoin syndrome, Fetal Hydantoin Syndrome, Dilantin Embryopathy, or Phenytoin Embryopathy.
e. Fetal alcohol syndrome is the most common differential diagnosis (BG Katzung’ 10th Edition, 2010).
f. It is important to know that there will be both growth and mental deficiency in fetal hydantoin syndrome. Though, the exact mechanism is not known but because folic acid is essential for protein synthesis and growth, and since hydantoin interferes with intestinal transport of folic acid, it has been postulated that part of the fetal hydantoin syndrome may be due to inhibition of placental folic acid by maternal hydantoin.
(Mnemonics: Phenytoin is also know as Diphenylhydantoin, so the teratogenic effect is known as Fetal Hydantoin Syndrome)