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Central Nervous System

3 out of 4

Functions of Basal ganglia include

A Gross motor movements

B Skilled motor movements

C Maintenance of equilibrium

D Emotional response

E Cortical arousal

Ans. B Skilled motor movements

A. Basal ganglia:

1. It consists of five nuclei -

a. Caudate nucleus Q

b. Putamen Q

c. Globus pallidus Q

d. Subthalamic nucleus Q

e. SustantianigraQ

* Striatum = caudatenucleus + Putamen

* Lenticular, = putamen + Globuspallidus

2. Function: -.

“Our knowledge of the precise functions of the basal ganglia is still rudimentary. Basal ganglia are involved in the planning and programming of the movements or, more broadly, in the processes by which an abstract thought is converted into voluntary action”

Most important functions are :

a. to help the cortex execute subconscious but learned pattern of the movements Qand

b. to help plan multiple parallel and seqential patterns of movement that the mind must put together to accomplish a purposeful task (i.e. skilled movements).Q

3. Lesion of Basal ganglia:

  1. Hemiballismus due to lesion in subthalamic nucleus Q
  2. Huntington’s disease/chorea:- Due to abnormal gene many times repeating codon, CAG- “The abnormal movements are believed to be caused by loss of most of the cell bodies of GABA-secreting neurons in the caudate nucleus and putamen (= Striatum) Q and acetyl choline secreting neurons in many part of the brain”
  3. Parkinson’s disease (Paralysis agitans) Q - “results from widespread destruction of that portion of the substantianigra Q, the pars compacta, that sends dopamine-secreting nerve fibers to the caudate nucleus and putamen (= striatum) - C/F — Cog-wheel or lead pipe rigidity, Involuntary tremor (3-6 cycles/sec and Akinesia.
  4. Athetosis(Writhing movement) due to lesion in the globuspallidus. Q

B. The hypothalamus and limbic systems are intimately concerned with emotional expression and the genesis of emotions.

C. Cerebellum and vestibular system of innerear are concerned with equilibirium.