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Virus isolation

  1. Laboratory animals- Animals observed for signs of disease or deathSucking mice for isolation of arboviruses and coxsackievirusesPrimates for hepatitis virusesViruses identified by testing for neutralization of their pathogenicity for animals, by standard antiviral sera 
  2. Chick embryos
    a. Chorioallantoic membrane: poxviruses, herpes simplex virus
    b. Amniotic cavity: primary isolation of influenza virus, mumps virus
    c. Allantoic cavity: influenza virus (for serial passages, vaccine production), sendai virus, Newcastle disease virus
    d. Yolk sac: Japanese B encephalitis virus, West Nile virus
  3. Cell culture
    Most commonly used method for cultivation of viruses
    1. Primary cell culture

      a. These are normal cells freshly taken from the body and cultured

      b. Capable of limited growth (5-10 divisions)

      c. Preferred for cultivating viruses for vaccine production

      d. Eg, rhesus monkey kidney cell culture, human amnion cell

      e. culture, chick embryo fibroblast cell culture

    2. Semi-continuous/ diploid cell strains
      These are the cell of a single type which that have retained their normal diploid chromosome number and karyotype. They can be passaged 3-40 times before the cells die off. Used for isolation of viruses and production of viral vaccines.
      Eg, human embryonic lung cell strain
    3. Continuous cell lines
      These are cells of a single type capable of indefinite propagation in vitro.
      They are derived from malignant tissue therefore have irregular chromosome numbers.
      Eg. HeLa (human carcinoma cervix), Hep-2 (human epithelioma of larynx), Kb (human carcinoma of nasopharynx)
      They are used for isolation of viruses but are not used for cultivation of viruses for vaccine production.

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