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Def: Glaucoma is a multifactorial progressive optic neuropathy in which there is characteristic loss of optic nerve fibre.

  1. Drainage of Aqueous Humour

    1.  Ciliary process


      Aqueous is formed by diffusion or osmosis (10%), ultra filtration (20%) and major part by secretion. (by active transport through non-pigmented cells of ciliary process= (70%) of pars plicata.


Note: The normal IOP varies between 10 and 21 mmHg (mean 16±2.5) 


Aqueous is different from plasma in having low glucose 80% of plasma low protein but high ASCORBATE

  1. Variation:
    1. Diurinal upto 5mm normal and more than 8mm significant
    2. IOP tends to peak in morning in majority of patients and few have peaks in afternoon
    3. Posture, pulse pressure, respiration, extremes of BP and season has effect on IOP
  2. Flow in= Flow out= C(IOP-PV)+U
    1. C= Outflow facility of trabecular meshwork (pressure sensitive)=0.3ul/min/mm hg
    2. U= Pressure independent outflow=uveoscleral=0.4 ul/min
    3. PV= Episcleral pressure=9mm Hg 

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