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Helicobacter Pylori


  1. GN spiral rod, motile unipolar tuft of lophotrichous flagella
  2. Microaerophilic, abundant urease production
  3. Unique sole niche-gastric mucosa.
  4. Colonization rates-50% world population, 80% in developing countries, lifelong colonization
  5. 10% of colonized develop disease. Disease is more often produced by toxigenic strains
  6. Mild acute gastritis, peptic ulcer disease(80% of duodenal ulcers, 60% of gastric ulcers), chronic gastritis
  7. Risk factor for gastric adenocarcinoma
  8. Gastric lymphomas
  1. Invasive tests (require biopsy)
    1. Warthin starry silver staining
    2. Culture: Skirrow’s medium (most specific)
    3. Biopsy urease test
    4. DNA probes and PCR for vac A and cag genes
  2. Noninvasive tests (do not require biopsy)

  1. Urea breath test (used for followup)
  2. Antigen detection in stool:ELISA
  3. Serology: ELISA 
  1. Virulence factors : Sheathed flagellum, superoxide dismutase, Urease production, Cag (cytotoxin associated gene), vac (vacoulating cytotoxin) gene

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