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Anemia: is defined as reduction in O2, carrying capacity leading to tissue hypoxia and is characterized by reduced cell mass and or hemoglobin concentration.


Classification of anemia

1. Microcytic

Iron deficiency


Lead poisoning

Chronic disease


Copper deficiency


Vitamin B6 responsive


2. Macrocytic

i.     Vitamin B12 deficiency

ii.    Folate deficiency

iii.   Kwashiorkor

iv.   Liver disease

v.    Hypothyroidism

vi.   Thiamine

vii.   Orotic aciduria

viii. Lesch Nyhan Syndrome


2. Normocytic

  1. Decreased production
    1. Aplastic anemia            
    2. Pure red cell aplasia
  2. Bone Marrow replacement
    1. 0 Leukemia            
    2. 0 Tumors
    3. 0 Storage disease
    4. 0 Osteopetrosis    
    5. 0 Myelofibrosis
  3. Blood loss
    1. Internal or external
  4. Sequestration
  5. Hemolysis
    1. Intrinsic RBC abnormalities
    2. Extrinsic RBC abnormalities

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