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  1. Gastric motility: Slow Waves (Basal Electric Rhythm) BER MCQ
  2. The RMP is not stable in visceral smooth muscle of the GI tract. There is a cyclic variation in resting membrane potential called the slow wave, or the basal electrical rhythm.
  3. Its frequency in distal stomach = 3 slow waves/min., duodenum = 12/min, ileum = 8/min, colon = 11/min, and l7/min. in the rectum
  4. Types of movements: phasic, segmental & peristalsis. Segmentation, primarily a function of circular muscle consists of a 2- or 3-centimeter segment that contracts while the muscle on either side of it relaxes. Peristalsis is a propulsive wave of contraction that is initiated by distention of the intestine
  5. Gastrocolic reflex MCQ is initiated when the stomach is distended, causing increased mass movements in colon, urge to defecate is there. This reflex mediated by the hormone gastrin.
  6. The tone of lower esophageal sphincter [LES] is under Parasympathetic neural control.
  7. Parietal (oxyntic cells}: Present in body of stomach and Secrete HCl , Ghrelin and intrinsic factor.
  8.  Chief (Zymogen, Peptic) cells: Present in the body & fundus, Secrete pepsinogen & G. Lipase
  9.  Optimal pH for pepsin is 1.6 - 3.2 (acidic) at which is stable.
  10. Pancreatic enzymes - trypsin, chymotrypsin &carboxy peptidase are stable in alkaline pH.
  11. Enterokinase (enteropeptidase), a glycoprotein enzyme of intestinal juice activates trypsin at pH5.5.
  12. Gastrin, CCK, insulin, motilin, substance P and serotonin enhance intestinal motality. Whereas, secretin, neurotensin and glucagon inhibits small intestinal motality.
  13. Parasympathetic (cholinergic) stimulation (Ach) and Distension of gut enhances gastric & intestinal motality.
  14. GIP is produced by K-cells in mucosa of duodenum and jejunum.
  15. Gastrin is a hormone which is produced by G-cells in the antral portion of gastric mucosa.
  16. Presence of fat in duodenum promotes the secretion of cholecyctokinin- pancreozymin (CCK-PZ) from cells of upper small intestine. CCK -PZ produces contraction of gall bladder.
  17. Substances that increase the secretion of bile are called as cholerectics (eg CCK-PZ). Bile salts are amongst the most important physiological cholerectic.
  18. 1 gm of Hemoglobin yields 35 mg of bilirubin.
  19. Bile acids have detergent action on the lipids due to their amphipathic nature.
  20. Peristalsis propels the small intestinal content (chyme) toward the large intestine.
  21. Ca2, Cl-, Fe2+ So4 , long chain fatty acids and vitamins (except B12) are mainly absorbed in upper small intestine (i.e jejunum & duodenum).
  22. Sodium (Na+) is mainly absorbed is upper & lower small intestine (jejunum, ileum) and colon, and K+ in upper mid & lower small intestine.
  23. Sugars and amino acids are mainly absorbed in mid small intestine whereas bile salts, and vitamin B12 in lower small intestine (ileum).
  24. Short chain fatty acids produced by gut bacteria , are absorbed in colon (max. K+ conc.)
  25. Final products of carbohydrate digestion in intestinal chyme are glucose & fructose.
  26. Steatorrhea is termed as stool fat >7gm/day.
  27. Colon has the longest transit time.
  28. Amylase is a carbohydrate digesting enzyme found in saliva, pancreatic juice and intestinal juice. This enzyme hydrolyses al-4glycosidicbonds.
  29. Glycemic index is a measure of a food's ability to elevate blood sugar level
  30. Fatty acid stored in adipose tissue in form of neutral TAG, serve as the body's major fuel storage reserve. 

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