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Lower Limb

  1. Gluteus medius is supplied by superior gluteal nerve
  2. Trendelenburg test is positive in gluteus medius paralysis.
  3. The anterior cruciate ligament is a key stabilizer of the knee joint, preventing posterior movement of the femur on the tibial plateau.
  4.  The medial meniscus, being more mobile and attached to the medial collateral ligament, is most likely to be injured. Twisting movements that combine lateral displacement with lateral rotation pull the medial meniscus toward the center of the joint where it may be trapped and crushed by the medial femoral condyle.
  5. Quadriceps causes knee extension and locks the knee joint. Popliteus unlocks the joint and causes knee flexion (antagonistic action).
  6. Contents of adductor canal:
    1. Femoral artery and vein                    
    2. Saphenous nerve           
    3. Nerve to vastus medialis
  7. Sesamoid is present in the tendon of flexor hallucis brevis.
  8. Most of the blood to the head and neck of the femur is supplied by the medial circumflex femoral artery
  9. The coronary ligamentsare portions of the joint capsule extending between the margins of the menisci and most of the periphery of thetibial condyles.
  10. From tibial attachment ACL extends superiorly, posteriorly, and laterally to attachto lateral condyle of the femur. It limits posterior rolling (turningand traveling) of the femoral condyles on the tibial plateauduring flexion, converting it to spin (turning in place). It alsoprevents posterior displacement of the femur on the tibia andhyperextension of the knee joint.
  11. To unlock the knee, the popliteus contracts, rotating the femur laterally about 5°on thetibial plateau so that flexion of the knee can occur.
  12. The middle genicular branches of the Poprited artery penetrate the fibrous layer of the joint capsule and supply thecruciate ligaments, synovial membrane, and peripheral margins of the menisci.
  13. Peripheral meniscaltears can often be repaired or may heal on their own because of the generous blood supply to this area.
  14. Prepatellar bursitis may be caused by friction betweenthe skin and the patella - housemaid’s knee.
  15. Entrapment and compression of tibial nerve (tarsal tunnel syndrome) occurs when there isedema and tightness in the ankle involving the synovial sheathsof the tendons of muscles in the posterior compartment of theleg. The area involved is from the medial malleolus to the calcaneus (compression of the nerve by the flexor retinaculum).
  16. The tibiofibular joints include a proximalsynovial joint, an interosseous membrane, and a distal tibiofibular syndesmosis,
  17. Peroneus longus is an inverter of the foot and is inserted into the medial cuneiform.
  18. The tendon of flexor hallucis longuspasses in a groove between the two tubercles of the posterior talus and then lower surface of the sustentaculum tali.
  19. Sensory distribution of the anterior leg: the web space between the first and second toes is specific for the fibular nerve (L5)
  20. The medial (deltoid) ligament fans out from the malleolus, attaching distallyto the talus, calcaneus, and navicular via four adjacent and continuous parts: the tibionavicular part,the tibiocalcanealpart,and the anteriorand posterior tibiotalar parts.
  21. The talar head is the keystone of the medial longitudinal arch.
  22. The spring ligament supports the head of the talus and plays important roles in the transfer of weight from the talus and in maintaining the medial longitudinal arch of the foot.Laxity of this ligament results in fallen arches or "flat feet."
  23. The lateral ligament (specifically its anterior talofibular ligament component) is the most frequently injured ligament of the body.
  24. Subtalar joint is between the talusand the calcaneus, where inversion and eversion occur about anoblique axis.

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