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Age group


At Birth


In children

Distal forearm, Torus (Buckle), Greenstick fracture


Supracondylar fracture of humerus (Extension type, posteromedial displacement)


Epiphyseal injuries (Salter Harris type 2 most common)

In adults

Fractures of shafts of long bones (Femur, tibia)

In elderly people

Colles fracture (50-60 Yrs), vertebral collapse (60-70 Yrs),

Hip fracture (Intertrochanter femur and Fracture neck of femur >70 yrs)

Injuries with characteristic deformities

Deformity Injury
Flattening of shoulder - Shoulder dislocation (anterior) --> (Ab + ER)
Dinner fork deformity - Colles’ Fracture
Mallet finger - Avulsion of the insertion of the extensor tendon from the distal phalanx of the finger
Flexion, adduction and - Posterior dislocation of the hip, Internal rotation of the hip
Abduction, external Rotation of the hip - Anterior dislocation of the hip and also in synovitis of hip joint.
External rotation of the leg and Shortening Trochanteric fracture - Fracture neck of femur


Deformity Injury
1. Flattening of shoulder anterior shoulder dislocation
2. Cubitusvarus (gunstock) malunited supracondylar # humerus>Malunited # L/C humerus.
3. Cubitus valgus non union # lateral condyle humerus
4. Dinner fork colles #
5. Garden spade smith #
6. Mallet Finger avulsion of insertion of extensor tendon from distal phalanx
7. Coxa Vara malunited # inter trochanteric femur / # Neck OF femur (Extra Capsular)


Table: Vascular injuries and skeletal trauma
Vessel injured Trauma
Femoral Fracture lower third of femur
Popliteal Supracondylar fracture of the femur
Popliteal Dislocation of the knee, Fracture tibia
Subclavian Fracture of the clavicle
Axillary Fracture-dislocation of the shoulder
Brachial Supracondylar fracture of the humerus



Crushing: Kohler (Navicular), Kienbock (Lunate), Presier (Scaphoid), Calves (Vertebra- Central), Sheumann (vertebra), Feiberg (2nd or 1st Metatarsal), Iseleni (5th metatarsal), Perthes disease (prox femoral epiphysis).
Splitting: OCD (Medial femoral condyle), Panner (Capitulum).
Tractional: Osgood (Tibial tuberosity), Severs, Larson Johnson (inferior pole of patella).

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