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It is disorder of perception Is a false sense of perception without external object or stimulus.

  1. Auditory hallucinations are m/c type of hallucinations in psychiatric conditions alcoholism, schizophrenia.
  2. Hallucinations seen in schizophrenia are - auditory (M/C), third person hallucination (most characteristic), tactile
  3. Visual hallucinations are seen in organic mental disorders
  4. Tactile and visual hallucinations with jet black tongue is seen in cocaine poisoning.
  5. Tactile hallucinations may occur in chronic amphetamine intoxication.



Is a false interpretation by the senses of an external object or stimulus which has real existence.



Delusion is a false belief in something which is not a fact, it is a disorder of thought.


a.      Fragmentary

Delirium, hebephrenic schizophrenia

b.      Of Grandiosity

In Mania

c.      Reference, persecution

Schizophrenia (esp. paranoid type)


Important delusion syndromes


Content of Delusion


a.        Jealousy (infidelity) involving spouse

b.       Erotic (Secret lovers)

c.        Body being ugly

d.       Infestations by worms or foreign body

e.       Delusion of double

1.       Othello syndrome (or conjugal paranoia)

2.       Erotomania or de- Clerambault’s syndrome

3.       Delusional dysmorphia

4.       Delusional halitosis

5.       Capgras syndrome


Imp. Psychiatric tests

  1. Tests for personality
    a. MMPI Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 
    b. 16PF 16 personality factors.
  2. Objective tests for intelligence
    a. Wechsler adult intelligence scale
    b. Wechsler’s memory scale, PGI memory scale
    c. Stanford-Binet test
  3. Projective tests for Psychiatry diagnosis
    a. Rorschach inkblot test
    b. TAT (Thematic apperception test)
    c. DAPT (Draw-a-person test)
  4. Neuropsychological tests
    a. BG Test ( Bender Gestalt test)
    b. BVRT (Benton visual retention test)
    c. Wisconsin’s card sorting test
    d. Luria- Nabraska & Halstead-Reitan test battery, PGI test battery of brain dysfunction

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