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Newborn infants

  1. Average weight at birth is 2.8 kg.
  2. Normal birth weight is 2.500 to 3.999 kg.
  3. Low birth weight < 2.5 kg. Very low birth weight (VLBW) < 1.5.
  4. Extremely low birth weight (ELBW) < 1 kg.
  5. AGA is appropriate for gestational age.
  6. Small for gestational age (SGA): Birth weight < 10th percentile.
  7. Large for gestational age (LGA): Birth wt > 90th percentile.
  8. Preterm: Born before 37 weeks of gestation.
  9. Term: Any neonate born between 37 and 42 weeks of pregnancy.
  10. Post term: Born at gestation age of 42 weeks or more.
  11. HR is120-160 / min.
  12. Normally newborn pass urine with in 48hrs and pass meconium with in 24 hrs.
  13. Normal baby loses during Ist week. Regain weight by D10 and then continues to gain weight at 25-30 gm/day for next 3 months.
  14. Low Birth Weight: loses 10-15% of weight during 1st week. Regain birth weight by 10-14 days.
  15. Term neonates: Wt loss (ECF) is 7-8% (5-10%) during 5-7 days of life. Regain birth weight by 7-10 days.
  16. Preterm neonates: Wt loss (ECF) is 10-15% during 7-10 days of life. Regain birth weight by 10-14 days.

Neonatal Reflexes

  1. Neonatal reflexes appear at particular age and then disappear at particular age. Some may persist for life.
  2. Absent Neonatal reflexes in general means depression of central or peripheral motor function.
  3. Abnormal persistence of neonatal reflex is pathognomic of central motor lesions. Asymmetrical neonatal reflex is abnormal.

Moro’s reflex: Hold the baby at an angle of about 45 from couch and then suddenly let the head full backs a short way. Reflex consists of:

  1. Abduction and extension of the arms; appears at 28 weeks.
  2. Opening of hands; appears at 32 weeks
  3. Followed by adduction of arm and flexion of forearms; appears at 36 week
    1. It is vestibular reflex. Disappear by 3-4 months.
      1. Abnormal if persists for more than 6 months.
      2. If absent: Suggests severe hypotonia, cerebral damage, mother sedated heavily. If exaggerated suggests cerebral irritability.
      3. If Asymmetrical: Suggests Erb’s palsy, # clavicle or humerus or hemiplegia.


Age of appearance

Age of Disapperance

(1)     ROOTING

32 wks of gestation

Len prominent after 1 month

(2)     MORO

28 – 3 week of gestation

3 – 6 months

(3)     PALMAR

28 weeks of gestation

2 – 3 months


35 weeks of gestation

6 – 7 months


4 – 6 months

8 – 12 months

(6)     LANDAU

3 months

12 months


8 – 9 months

Remain throughout life


28 weeks of gestation

1 – 2 month

Normal findings in infants during 1st week of life

  1. Milia: Distended sebaceous glands, white dots (on nose and face).
  2. Erythema toxicum: On D2-D3, discrete, erythematous papules, appear on trunk and face. Scrapping from lesions shows eosinophilic infiltration.
  3. Cephalhematoma.
  4. Caput Succedaneum.
  5. Subconjunctional hemorrhages.
  6. Epstein pearl:
    1. Palatal: Inclusion cysts, Whitish spots on hard palate.
    2. Prepucial: White in color, o+n tip of prepuce at 6 O’clock position.
  7. Natal teeth: Present at birth or erupt shortly. It should be removed if causing injury to breast.
  8. Breast engorgement: Full term babies of both sexes on D3-D4.
  9. While or creamy white liquid from breast, due to transparently acquired maternal hormones.
  10. Peeling of skin: Frequent in post term infants.
  11. Stork bites: Pinkish gray capillary hemangiomata. Disappear after few months.
  12. Mongolian spot: Usually disappear before the first birthday.
  13. Vaginal bleeding: On D3-D7 due to withdrawal of maternal hormones.
  14. Vaginal mucoid discharge: Thick, white viscid vaginal discharge due to effect of transplacentally acquired estrogen on vaginal mucosa.
  15. Physiological phimosis: In 80% of male neonates.

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