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Special Views

  1. Judet views: for acetabular fracture
  2. Oblique view of the wrist: for fracture scaphoid
  3. Von Rosen view: for DDH
  4. Shenton’s line: hip X-ray
  5. Mortise view: for ankle injuries AP view in 150 of internal rotation.
  6. Sunset view: for patello-femoral dysplasia​


  1. Carrying angle: elbow
  2. Pauwel’s angle: fracture neck of the femur
  3. Bauman’s angle: or measuring deformities of elbow 4) Angle of Gissane fracture Calcaneum
  4. Bohler’s angle: fracture of the Calcaneum
  5. Kite’s angle: angle in CTEV AP talocalcaneal angle.

Classic Features

  1. Wormian bones: Osteogenesis Imperfecta
  2. Sun-ray appearance: Aggressive/malignant tumor e.g. Osteosarcoma
  3. Soap-bubble appearance: Osteoclastoma (GCT)/ Adamantinoma
  4. Onion-peel appearance: Malignant lesion e.g. Ewing’s sarcoma
  5. Shepherd-Crook deformity: Fibrous dysplasia
  6. Risser’s sign: skeletal maturity,Epiphysis of iliac bone fusion - Indicative of progression in scoliosis.
  7. Aneurysmal sign: TB spine (anterior type)
  8. Trethowan’s sign: Slipped capital femoral epiphysis
  9. Sagging rope sign: Perthes’ disease
  10. Patchy calcification: Chondrosarcoma
  11. Febella: sesamoid bone in the lateral head of Gastrocnemius
  12. Spondylosis: degenerative spine disease
  13. Spondylolysis: break in posterior elements (at pars interarticularis)
  14. Spondylolisthesis: slip of one vertebra over other
  1. Antalgic gait: occurs in painful condition of lower limb
  2. Trendelenburg gait: occurs in an unstable hip due to CDH. Gluteus medius weakness etc.
  3. Stiff hip gait: occurs in ankylosis of the hip
  4. Duck waddling gait: occurs in bilateral CDH
  5. Scissoring gait: occurs in CP
  6. High stepping gait: occurs in foot drop
  7. Circumduction gait: occurs in hemiplegia
  8. Charlie-Chaplin gait: occurs in tibial torsion
  9. Sailor’s gait: occurs in bilateral CDH


  1. Neer’s: for upper end of humerus fractures
  2. Gartland - Supra Condylar fracture humerus,
  3. Milch - Lateral Condyle fracture humerus.
  4. Mason - radial head
  5. Fernandez - Lower end radius
  6. Tiles - Pelvis
  7. Judet and Letournel - acetabulum
  8. Pauwel’s/ Garden’s: for fracture neck of the femur
  9. Lauge Hansen’s: for ankle injuries
  10. Hawkins talus fracture
  11. Gustilo’sandersons: for compound fractures
  12. Salter and Harris: for Epiphyseal injuries
  13. Dennis: for spine fracture.

Most Common Complication Of­

Colles# Stiffness of fingers & wrist > Malunion
Supracondylar# of humerus Malunion (Gunstock / Varus deformity)
Inter trochanteric# Malunion
#Clavicle Malunion
#NOF Avascular necrosis > Non union
Scaphoid #Non-union

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