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Inguinal lymph nodes

  1. There are about 10 superficial inguinal nodes. A proximal group lies just distal to inguinal ligament and a distal group lies vertically along the terminal part of great saphenous vein. Thus, their arrangement is T-shaped, a lower vertical and an upper horizontal group. Superficial inguinal lymph nodes receive lymphatics from :-
    1. Skin and fascia (superficial lymphatics) of lower limb, perineum:, trunk (anterior abdominal wall)
    2. Below umbilicus, external genitalia (except testis, glans and clitoris) and gluteal region.
    3. Vagina below hymen, round ligament and superolateral angle of uterus.
    4. Anal canal below pectinate line.
    5. Penile urethra.
  2. Three of four deep inguinal nodes lie deep to fascia lata, medial to femoral vein, one or two being in femoral canal. They receive lymphatics from Popliteal fossa, glans penis in males or clitoris in females, anterior urethra (bulbar and penile), deep lymphatics of lower limb and superficial inguinal nodes. Deep inguinal lymph nodes drain into external iliac nodes.




Femoral Triangle

  1. Femoral triangle is a triangular depression below the inguinal ligament in the upper one third of thigh, Boundaries of femoral triangle are –
    1. Lateral:-Medial border of sartorius.
    2. Medial:-Medial border of adductor longus.
    3. Base: - Inguinal ligament.
    4. Apex: - Where sartorius crosses adductor longus.
    5. Floor (from medial to lateral):- Adductor longus, pectineus, tendon of psoas major, iliacus.
    6. Roof:-Fascia lata, superficial fascia, skin.

  1. Contents of femoral triangle are :-
    1. Femoral sheath                                                      
    2. Femoral artery and its branches.
    3. Femoral vein and its tributaries.                         
    4. Deep inguinal lymph nodes.
    5. Femoral nerve and its branches.                         
    6. A part of lateral femoral cutaneous nerve of thigh.
    7. Femoral branch of genitofemoral nerve.                     
    8. Some fibro fatty tissue.
    9. nerve to pectineus.

Femoral sheath


  1. Femoral sheath is a funnel shaped fascial prolongation around proximal part of femoral vessels, situated in the femoral triangle, below the inguinal ligament. It is 3-4 cm long. It is formed by fascia iliaca.
  2. Femoral sheath is divided into 3 separate fascial compartments by septa :-
    1. Lateral compartment: - It contains femoral artery and femoral branch of genitofemoral nerve.
    2. Intermediate compartment: - Femoral vein.
    3. Medial compartment (femoral canal):- It is conical in shape, wider above and narrow below. The wider upper opening is known as femoral ring, which is potentially a weak point in lower abdomen and is the site for femoral hernia. Femoral ring is bounded: Anteriorly by inguinal ligament, medially by lacunar ligament, posteriorly by pectineus with its covering fascia, and laterally by septum separating it from femoral vein. Femoral canal contains lymph node of cloquet or Rosenmuller and lymphatics.
  3. Lateral margin of femoral sheath is perforated by femoral branch of genitofemoral nerve. Medial margin is perforated by the great saphenous vein. Inferiorly it merges with perivascular sheath of femoral vessels.
  4. Femoral nerve lies outside the femoral sheath.

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