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Retinacula Around Ankle







  1. Superior Extensor Retinaculum
    1. Thickening of deep fascia of lower part of front of leg and lies immediately above the talocrural (ankle) joint.
    2. Attachments -:
      1. Medially: Lower part of anterior border of tibia.
      2. Laterally: Lower part of anterior border of fibula.
    3. Structures passing deep to it from medial to lateral:
      i. Tendon of tibialis anterior.     
      ii. Tendon of extensor hallucis longus.
      iii. Anterior tibial vessels.             
      iv. Deep peroneal (anterior tibial) nerve.
      v. Tendon of extensor digitorum longus.
      vi. Tendon of peroneus tertius.
  1. Inferior Extensor Retinaculum
    It is a V-shaped band lying in front of the ankle joint.

    Attachments :
    1. Stem of the inferior extensor retinaculum is attached to upper surface of calcaneus in front of sulcus calcanei. Passing medially the stem divides into two bands. Upper band passes upwards and medially to be attached to tibial malleolus. Lower band extends downwards and medially to blend with plantar aponeurosis.
    2. Structures passing deep to it are:
      1) Tibialis anterior tendon.
      2)  Extensor hallucis longus tendon.
      3)  Dorsalis pedis vessels.
      4)  Deep peroneal nerve.
      5)  Extensor digitorum longus tendons.
      6)  Peroneus tertius tendon
  1. Flexor Retinaculum


It is a thickening of deep fascia on the medial aspect of ankle joint.


  1. Anteriorly to the tip of medial malleolus of tibia.
  2. Posteriorly to the medial process of calcaneal tuberosity and plantar aponeurosis.
  3. Abductor hallucis takes origin from the retinaculum. Flexor retinaculum converts the concavity on the medial surface of calcaneus into tarsal tunnel.

Structures passing through tarsal tunnel (medial to lateral)

  1. Tibialis posterior tendon.                         
  2. Flexor digitorum longus tendon.
  3. Posterior tibial vessels.                             
  4. Tibial nerve.
  5. Flexor hallucis longus tendon.
  1. Peroneal Retinacula
    They are two in number giving passage to the tendons of peroneus longus and peroneus brevis. They lie on the lateral aspect of ankle.
    1. Superior peroneal retinaculum is attached anteriorly to the lateral malleolus of fibula and posteriorly to the lateral surface of calcaneus.
    2. Inferior peroneal retinaculum is continuous anteriorly with stem of inferior extensor retinaculum and posteriorly attached to lateral surface of calcaneus. A septum attaches it to the peroneal trochlea of calcaneus forming separate compartments for peroneus longus and brevis tendons.

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