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Quick Specifics–MSK


Ankylosing Spondylitis - Shiny corner sign

Degenerative Spondylosis - Pseudo shiny corner sign

Osteoarthritis hip- Waldenstrom sign

Patello-femoral joint OA - Patellar tooth sign

Chondromalacia patellae - Movie sign

Erosive OA - Gull wing sign

Atrophic neuropathic arthritis

  1. Licked candy stick appearance
  2. Jigsaw vertebra
  3. Tumbling building block spine


  1. Migrating mouse sign
  2. Apple core deformity of hip

Psoriatic arthropathy

  1. Cocktail sausage digit
  2. Spindle digit
  3. Ivory phalanx
  4. Pencil in cup/Pestle and mortar/Mushroom and stem
  5. Balancing pagoda /Cup n saucer appearance
  6. Opera glass hand
  7. Whittling effect
  8. Mouse ears sign


  1. Bone in bone appearance
  2. Sandwich vertebra
  3. Rugger-Jersey spine
  4. Erlenmeyer Flask deformity

Melorrhosteosis - Flowing candlewax appearance

Cliedo-crania dysplasia - Hot cross bun skull

Nail patella syndrome - Paired posterior iliac horns

Downs syndrome

  1. Elephant ears
  2. Mickey mouse ears
  3. Clinodactyly


  1. Bare orbit
  2. Empty orbit sign

MPS I / Hurler syndrome

  1. Hook shaped vertebral bodies
  2. Cut corner sign

MPS IV / Morquio syndrome

  1. Central beaking of vertebrae
  2. Ape like pelvis

Marfan syndrome - Steinberg sign


  1. Pelkan spur
  2. Pencil thin cortex
  3. Corner sign of Parke
  4. Trummerfield zone of rarefaction
  5. White line of Frankel
  6. Wimberger sign


  1. Looser zone / lines
  2. Milkmans fracture
  3. Osteoid seams
  4. Imcrement fracture
  5. Umbau zones


  1. Ruggerjersey spine
  2. Brown tumours
  3. Pepper pot skull
  4. Subperiosteal resrption of phalanges

Pagets disease

  1. Cotton wool appearance
  2. Candle flame / Blade of grass lysis
  3. Picture frame vertebra

Brodies abscess - Penumbra sign


  1. Inverted Napolean hat sign
  2. Gendarme’s cap sign
  3. Bowline of Brailsford
  4. Broken collar/neck of scotty dog
  5. Scottish Terrier sign

Histiocytosis X

  1. Button sequestrum
  2. Floating teeth sign
  3. Hole within hole appearance


  1. Swan neck deformity
  2. Boutonniere deformity
  3. Hitch hiker thumb
  4. Hammer toes


  1. Trident hand
  2. Tomb stone iliac bone
  3. Cheuron sign

Fish mouth vertebra

  1. Sickle cell anemia
  2. Homocystinuria

Alkaptonuria - Intervertebral disc calcification

Spondylo-epiphyseal dysplasia congenital - Pear shaped vertebra

Spondylo-epiphyseal dysplasia tarda

  1. Hump shaped vertebra
  2. Heaped up vertebra

MPS I/Hurler Sy-Inferiorly beaked vertebra

MPS IV/Hunter Sy–Centrally beaked vertebra

Osteogenesis imperfect-Biconcave lens vertebra

Pyknodysostosis-Spool shaped vertebra

Achondroplasia-Bullet nose vertebra

Pseudochondroplasia–Vertebra with central anterior tongues

Thanatophoric dwarfism-H shaped vertebra

Extra Edge

Type of fractures

Type Bone status Load
Traumatic Normal Single heavy
March/fatigue (stress) Normal Repetitive
Insufficiency (stress) Abnormal (metabolic) Trivial
Pathological Abnormal (tumor) Trivial

Site Disease
Scaphoid Preiser disease
Lunate (lunatomalacia) Kienbock disease
Navicular Kohler disease
Head of 2nd, 3rd, 4th, metatarsal Freiberg disease
Capitellum Panner's disease
Medial tibial condyle Blount disease
Femoral head Legg-Calve Perthe disease
Calcaneum Sever's disease
Tibial tuberosity Osgood-Schlatter disease
Ring-like vertebral epiphysis Scheuermann's disease
Lower pole of patella Sinding-Larsen disease
Blount disease Medial condyle of tibia
Calve-Kummel-Verneil disease Vertebral body epiphysis
Knee Spontaneous osteonecrosis of knee (SONK)

Extra Edge
Few diseases and the commonest joint involved/affected:
  1. Gout first metatarsophalangeal joint
  2. Osteochondritis dissecans knee
  3. Synovial enchondromatosis knee
  4. Myositis ossificans around elbow
  5. Premature osteoarthritis → hip
  6. Osteomyelitis in diabetic foot metatarsal heads (first & fifth) 

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