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Tumor Markers

Tumor marker Associated tumor types
Alpha fetoprotein (AFP) Nonseminometus germ cell tumor of testes , hepatocellular carcinoma
CA15-3 breast cancer
CA19-9 Mainly pancreatic cancer, but also colorectal cancer and other types of gastrointestinal cancer.
CA-125 Mainly ovarian cancer, but may also be elevated in for example endometrial cancer, fallopian tube cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer and gastrointestinal cancer. May also increase in endometriosis.
Calretinin mesothelioma, sex cord-gonadal stromal tumour, adrenocortical carcinoma, synovial sarcoma
Carcinoembryonic antigen gastrointestinal cancer, cervix cancer, lung cancer, ovarian cancer, breast cancer, urinary tract cancer
CD34 hemangiopericytoma/solitary fibrous tumor, pleomorphic lipoma, gastrointestinal stromal tumor, dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans
CD99 Ewing sarcoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumor, hemangiopericytoma/solitary fibrous tumor, synovial sarcoma, lymphoma, leukemia, sex cord-gonadal stromal tumour
CD117 gastrointestinal stromal tumor, mastocytosis, seminoma
Chromogranin neuroendocrine tumor
Cytokeratin (various types) Many types of carcinoma, some types of sarcoma
Desmin smooth muscle sarcoma, skeletal muscle sarcoma, endometrial stromal sarcoma
Epithelial membrane protein (EMA) many types of carcinoma, meningioma, some types of sarcoma
Factor VIII, CD31 FL1 vascular sarcoma
Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) glioma (astrocytoma, ependymoma)
Gross cystic disease fluid protein (GCDFP-15) breast cancer, ovarian cancer, salivay glarnd cancer
HMB-45 melanoma, PEComa (for example angiomyolipoma), clear cell carcinoma, adrenocortical carcinoma
Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) gestational trophoblastic disease, germ cell tumor, carcinoma
immunoglobulin lymphoma, leukemia
inhibin sex cord-gonadal stromal tumour, adrenocortical carcinoma, hemangioblastoma
keratin (various types) carcinoma, some types of sarcoma
PTPRC (CD45) lymphoma, leukemia, histiocytic tumor
lymphocyte marker (various types lymphoma, leukemia[5]
MART-1 (Melan-A) melanoma, steroid-producing tumors (adrenocortical carcinoma, gonadal tumor)
Myo D1 rhabdomyosarcoma, small, round, blue cell tumour
muscle-specific actin (MSA) myosarcoma (leiomyosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma)
neurofilament neuroendocrine tumor, small-cell carcinoma of the lung
neuron-specific enolase (NSE) neuroendocrine tumor, small-cell carcinoma of the lung, breast cancer
placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP) seminoma, dysgerminoma, embryonal carcinoma
prostate-specific antigen prostate
S100 protein melanoma, sarcoma (neurosarcoma, lipoma, chondrosarcoma), astrocytoma, gastrointestinal stromal tumor, salivary gland cancer, some types of adenocarcinoma, histiocytic tumor (dendritic cell, macrophage)
smooth muscle actin (SMA) gastrointestinal stromal tumorleiomyosarcomaPEComa
synaptophysin neuroendocrine tumor
thyroglobulin thyroid cancer (but not in medullary thyroid cancer)
thyroid transcription factor-1 all types of thyroid cancer, lung cancer
Tumor M2-PK colorectal cancer, Breast cancer, renal cell carcinoma Lung cancer, Pancreatic cancer, Esophageal Cancer, Stomach Cancer, Cervical Cancer, Ovarian Cancer,
vimentin sarcoma, renal cell carcinoma, endometrial cancer, lung carcinoma, lymphoma, leukemia, melanoma

Tumor lysis syndrome  is caused by destruction of large number of rapidly proliferating neoplastic cells. It is characterize by
  • Hyperuricemia (due to increased turnover of nucleic acids)
  • Hyperkalemia (due to release of the most abundant intracellular cation potassium)
  • Hyperphosphatemia (due to release of intracellular phosphate)
  • Hypocalcemia (due to complexing of calcium with the elevated phosphate)
  • Lactic acidosis
  • Hyperuricemia can cause uric acid precipitation in the kidney causing acute renal failure.

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