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Congenital orbital malformations

Most common examples are:
  1. Crouzon’s Syndrome*
    decreased orbital volume.
    1. Clinical Features
      1. Proptosis: It may cause corneal exposure leading to exposure keratitis.      
      2. Hypertelorism.
  2. Apert’s Syndrome*
    1. It is the most severe form of craniostenosis involving all sutures.
  3. Clinical Features
    1. Mentally handicapped                                       
    2. Contracted orbital volume leading to Proptosis.
    3. Hypertelorism                             
    4. Antimongoloid slant                                
    5. Optic atrophy.
  1. Lateral facial microstomias
    It constitutes a spectrum of anomaly involving structures derived from first and second' branchial arches* leading to asymmetrical underdevelopment of face.
    1. Treacher Collins Syndrome*
      Generalized rotation of orbital content; with associated malar, zygomatic and mandibular hypoplasia.< >Clinical Features Antimongoloid slant     
      1. Clinical Features
        1. Antimongoloid slant            
        2. Eyelid coloboma            
        3. Strabismus which may lead to amblyopia.
    2. Goldenhar's Syndrome
      Also called Oculo-Auricular-Vertebral Syndrome< >Clinical Features:           
  1. Clinical Features:
    Depressed lateral orbital rim, with wide mouth, preauricular skin tags. deafness. vertebral malformations.
  2. Ocular Features:
    1. Epibulbar dermoids.                            
    2. Microphthalmos, Microcornea.                 
    3. Anophthalmos.                                      
    4. Hypoplasia of optic nerve and macula.                    
    5. Strabismus

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