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  1. HCG is a glycoprotein
  2. It is synthesized by syncytiotrophoblast of the placenta.
  3. HCG has 2 subunits:
    - - biologically similar in LH, FSH and TSH. (i.e non-specific)
    - β subunit - unique to HCG. (i.e specific)
  4. Structurally it is similar to - FSHQ, LH, TSH but functionally it is similar to LH (i.e luteotropic), i.e. helps in maintaining corpus luteum. So, the main hormone which maintains activity of corpus luteum during pregnancy is HCG and in non-pregnant state is LH.
  5. The half-life of HCG is 36 hours.
  6. In early pregnancy the doubling time of HCG is 1.4 - 2 days.
  7. It can be detected in maternal serum as early as 8 days following fertilization /Day 22 of menstrual cycle/5 days before missed period by immuno assay
  8. The level is 100 lU/L or mlU/mL around the time of the expected menses.
  9. The levels progressively rise and reach maximum levels by about 8-10 weeks 170 days/1st trimester." It then falls until about 16weeks and remains at low level up to term.
  10. HCG disappears from circulation by 2 weeks following delivery.

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