Recurrent abortions are seen with all of the following EXCEPT (AIPG 2008)
1. TORCH infections are a group of infections that occur in a pregnant woman can lead to severe fetal anomalies or even fetal loss. They can be transmitted to the unborn child in the womb or during child-birth. The mother often has a mild infection with few or no symptoms.
TORCH is an acronym. The infectious agents are:
T – Toxoplasmosis/Treponema
O – Other agents, such as Coxsackie virus, Listeria and human parvovirus
R – Rubella
C – Cytomegalovirus/Chlamydia
H – Herpes simplex
2. The acronym has also been listed as TORCHES, for Toxoplasmosis, Rubella, CMV, Herpes simplex, Syphilis. It classically causes severe congenital anomalies but not recurrent abortions.
3. Spontaneous and recurrent abortion occurring consecutively on three or more occasions is called recurrent or habitual abortion.
1. Systemic disorders include maternal disorders like diabetes mellitus, chronic nephritis, essential hypertension and Rh-incompatibility.
2. Hormonal. Various hormones have been implicateD. Luteal phase defect due to progesterone deficiency, polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) and thyroid dysfunctions are known to cause recurrent abortions.
3. Cervical incompetence
4. Developmental abnormalities of the uterus. Various degrees of bicornuate uterus and subseptate uterus.
5. Immunologic causes
6. Ascending infection: This is not a common cause of abortion, as fetal membranes are protective. The organisms which are implicated are as follows:
7. Group B Streptococci
a. E. coli
b. Mycoplasma lomini
c. Ureaplasma urealyticum
e. Genital herpes simplex
g. Maternal syphilis
1. Chromosomal defects in the fetus may result in recurrent early abortions.
1. In nearly 75% of cases, no cause is found for the recurrent abortions.