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  1. The proximal tubular reabsorption of cystine and the diabasic amino acids ornithine, lysine and arginine is impaired. Super saturation of urine with cystine crystals may lead to recurrent calculus formation.
  2. Cystine calculi are radio opaque.
  3. A large fluid intake, alkalinization of urine and administration of D-penicillamine will help to prevent calculus formation.

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