Squamous cell carcinoma of urinary bladder is frequently associated with: (AIIMS Nov 2009)
|A||Schistosoma haematobium infestation|
|B||Schistosoma Mansoni infestation|
|C||Ankylostoma duodenale infestation|
a. Chronic cystitis in the presence of indwelling catheters or calculi is associated with an increased risk for SCC of the bladder.
b. Between 2% and 10% of paraplegics with long-term indwelling catheters develop bladder cancer, 80% of which are SCCs.
c. However, with means of managing these patients without chronic indwelling catheters, the incidence of bladder cancer and the preponderance of SCCs, appears to be decreasing .
d. Similarly, Schistosoma haematobium cystitis appears to be causally related to the development of bladder cancer—often SCC.
e. However, there is also an increased incidence of TCCs in males with schistosomiasis.
f. Cystitis-induced bladder cancer from all causes is usually associated with severe, long-term infections.
g. The mechanisms of carcinogenesis are not understood but may involve formation of nitrite and N-nitroso compounds in the bladder , presumably from parasitic or microbial metabolism of normal urinary constituents .
i. The role of exposure to the human papillomavirus (HPV) in bladder cancer has been evaluated by several groups, with widely divergent findings.