Which of the following investigation is not useful in a case of bladder cancer?
|C||Urine for malignant cytology|
a. The classic presentation of bladder cancer is painless hematuria.
b. Microscopic hematuria as a result of bladder cancer may be intermittent, therefore, bladder cancer cannot be ruled out with a repeat negative urinalysis.
c. Persistent, irritative voiding symptoms may be a result of carcinoma in situ (CIS) or muscle-invasive bladder cancer.
d. A urologic work-up for hematuria includes cystoscopy and radiographic imaging of the upper urinary tract as previously discussed.
e. Bladder cytology is 95% accurate for diagnosing high-grade tumors and CIS, however, its accuracy for diagnosing low-grade carcinoma is only 10 to 50%.
f. Newer assays for the detection and surveillance of TCCa in voided urine include the BTA-Stat, NMP-22, and FDP tests.
g. In the operating room, all suspicious lesions should be endoscopically biopsied. Blood effluxing from either ureteral orifice should be further investigated with a retrograde pyelogram and possibly ureteroscopy.