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Angle Modulation


  1. Phase Modulation
    s(t) = A cos (ωc t + kp m(t))
    s(t) = phase modulated carrier wave.
  2. Frequency Modulation
    s(t) = 494.png
    where, s(t) = frequency modulated carrier wave.
    Modulation index (mf) = 499.png 

Transmission Bandwidth of FM Signal:



Sampling Theorem


A continuous time signal may be completely represented by its samples and recovered back from its samples under the condition that the sampling frequency is fs ≥ 2fm.


fs = sampling frequency

fm = maximum frequency component present in the signal.

When sampling rate become exactly equal to 2fm per seconds, then it is called Nyquist rate and the maximum sampling interval is called Nyquist interval.

μ-law companding : Formula for μ-law companding is


A-law Companding : 
A-law companding is given by the formula:


The major disadvantage of Delta modulation is

  1. Slope Overload distortion.
  2. Granular Noise distortion.


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