# Simple Bar Chart

**Production of Fertiliser in lakh tons by different companies (A-E) for three year 2006, 2007 and 2008.**

1. The total production by five companies in 2008 is what per cent of the total production by companies B and D in 2006?

1. 100% 2. 150% 3. 95% 4. 200%

5. None of these.

2. What is the ratio between average production by company B in three years to the average production by company C in three years?

1. 6 : 7 2. 8 : 7 3. 7 : 8 4. 7 : 6

5. None of these.

3. For which of the following companies the rise or fall in production of fertiliser from 2006 to 2007 was the maximum?

1. A 2. B 3. C 4. D 5. E

4. What is the per cent drop in production by company D from 2006 to 2008?

1. 30 2. 43 3. 50 4. 35 5. None of these

5. The average production for three years was maximum for which of the following companies?

1. B only 2. D only 3. E only 4. B and D both 5. D and E both.

# How to attempt

** **

First understand the graph.

We see that companies are given on the horizontal axis. Then what are the different bars for? The description tells us that data is for three years: 2006, 2007 and 2008. This means that the first bar for all companies (black with white dots) is data for 2006, the second bar (white with black dots) is data for 2007 and the last bar is data for 2008. In other words, data for a particular year is not presented together. Now we are ready to do the questions.

Q. 1. Total production by 5 companies in 2008 = 35 + 40 + 45 + 35 + 35 = 190

Production of B and D in 2006 = 45 + 50 = 95

Required percentage = 190/95 × 100 = 200%, hence fourth option.

Q. 2. Average production of B = (45 + 35 + 40)/3 = 40 lakhs tons

Average production of C = (25 + 35 + 45)/3 = 35 lakh tons

So the required ratio is 40/35 = 8/7, hence second option.

Q. 3. From the graph it is clear that rise in production of C was greatest in 2006-07, hence third option (visual question)

Q. 4. Production in 2006 = 50 lakh tons

Production in 2008 = 35 lakh tons.

Drop in production = (50 – 35)/50 × 100 = 30%.

Q. 5. Average production for A = (30+25+35)/3 = 30

Average production for B = 40 lakh tons

Average production for C = 35 lakh tons

Average production for D = (50 + 40 + 35)/3 = 41.6 hence last option.

# Horizontal Bar Charts

**II. Horizontal Bar Charts**

In this set we see the data inhorizontal bars and we also have to interpret two graphs at the same time. The graphs give Foreign Investment in Russian industry ($ bn) and the second graph shows number of deals.

1. What is the difference between the number of deals under “Others” and all the other deals?

1. 95 2. 195 3. 110 4. 210 5. 220

2. A business tycoon made a number of deals in various categories. Approximately 21% of the Cars/ Aerospace deals, 29% of the property deals and 37% of the deals under Leisure and Hotels were made by him. The total number of deals made by him was closest to:

1. 35 2. 45 3. 55 4. 65 5. 70

3. If multinational companies signed 43% of the deals under Others, and, on an average, 39% of the deals in all the remaining categories, what percent of the deals under Others were formed by the deals in all the remaining categories, if only the deals signed by multinationals are considered?

1. 120% 2. 85% 3. 150% 4. 77% 5. 100%

4. Considering the data given in previous questions, what was the maximum amount invested by the business tycoon ($bn) and which industry was this in?

1. 0.45, Leisure & Hotel 2. 0.24, Leisure & Hotel

3. 0.23, Others 4. 0.45, Cars & Aerospace

5. 0.60, Cars and aerospace

5. The Russian government expected an investment of US $ 45 million per deal. What was the percentage shortfall between the actual investment and the expected investment?

1. 45% 2. 50% 3. 25% 4. 15% 5. 60%

# How to attempt

** **

These graphs require calculation of data given in them.

1. Refer to the second graph. No of deals in others = 330.

For other deals we have to add all the other figures = 90 + 125 + 30 + 75 + 25 + 40 + 5 + 35 = 425.

Difference = 425 – 330 = 95.

2. Number of deals made = 21% of 75 + 29% of 25 + 37% of 30 = 15 + 8 + 12 = 35. Note that using approximation techniques helps in such calculations.

3. Multinationals signed 43% of 330 = 142 deals under Others.

Under other heads, number of deals signed = 39% of 425 = 166.

All other investments form around 120% of deals under Others.

4.He invested in cars = 21% of 1.1 = 0.23. In property = 29% of 0.75 = 0.21

In hotels he invests = 37% of 1.25 = 0.46, hence maximum is (1).

5. Actual investment is given by totaling left bar chart = $13 bn.

Expected investment was 755 × 45 = $34 bn (approx)

Shortfall = (34 – 13)/34 = 21/34 = 60% approx.

# Pie Charts

**III. Pie Charts**

Questions: 40

*Directions: Q. 1 to 5 are based on the following pie-charts.*

1. What is the percentage change in the central angle of the Daewoo group?

1. 64% 2. 54% 3. 44% 4. 34% 5. none of these

2. If the total equity dispensed at present is Rs. 3.68 crore and that to be dispensed in future is Rs. 4.52 crore, what is the difference in the equity held by the DCM group (in rupees crore)?

1. 2 2. 1.5 3. 0.8 4. 0.5 5. 1.0

3. The Toyota Motor Corp., being totally excluded from equity dispensation in the second case, decided to raise funds through another enterprise. They managed to collect a substantial sum in this fashion, and found that that sum was 3.15 times the equity they had in the first case. What was the amount of money that they raised through their new enterprise (Rs. crores)? (Use information from Q. 2)

1. 3.3

2. 2.3

3. 0.3

4. 1.2

5. cannot be determined.

4. If the present equity dispensation is as mentioned in Q 2 & if the DCM group is to have the same amount of equity in the future, what would the total equity dispensation then have to be (in Rs. crores)?

1. 12.5

2. 14.5

3. 16.5

4. 17.5

5. 18.5

5. How does the total equity with Toyota Motor Corp. and the Public at present compare with that with the public only in the future?

1. Public only in future is 2.5% higher

2. Public only in future is 2.5% lower

3. Public only in future is 5% lower

4. Public only in future is 5% higher

5. Cannot be determined.

**How to attempt:**

1.Central angle of Daewoo group is given by (77 – 50)/50 × 100 = 54%.

Note that we are able to calculate this because the base is same in both cases, i.e. 360 degrees.

2.Difference in equity held by DCM group = 34% of 3.68 = 1.25 crore.

In future it is 10% of 4.52 = 0.45. Difference = 1.25 – 0.45 = 0.80 crore.

3.At present Toyota holds 2.5% of 3.68 = 0.09 crore. Now they will raise 3.15 × 0.09 = 0.3 crore approx.

4.At present DCM has Rs 1.25 crore of equity. Since it would hold only 10% equity in future, it would need Rs 12.5 crore.

5.We cannot compare present and future figures as the bases are different.