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Communication is defined as the transmission of information via a medium. The important means of communication are
  • Postal services
  • Telephone services
  • Tele printers
  • Radio
  • Television
  • E-mail

Postal services

India’s postal system was in existence since 1837 and today, it is the largest network in the world with more than 1.55 lakh post offices, out of which 1.4 lakh are in the rural areas. On an average, one post office serves 7,814 persons and 21.23 sq. km area.
Drawbacks of postal services:
  • Inadequate number of post offices
  • Use of outdated techniques
  • Delays in the reaching of posted material, etc.
Steps taken to solve these problems
  • Speed post
  • Business post
  • Express parcel post
  • Media post
  • Speed post passport
To provide better services, the following steps have been taken.
  • Electronic money order (eMO), e-payment and Instant Money Order (IMO) have been set up in order to improve the speed and volume of money order transmissions
  • Efforts are on for mechanization and computerization of postal operations. Presently, more than 14000 post offices are computerized
  • Most of the cities today have Automatic Mail Processing Centres (AMPC), for faster processing of mails. In some states, e-post services were started in 2001. Under e-bill post, customers can pay multiple utility bills at post office counters
  • Pick-up of mails from the residence of the customers has been started all over the country. This is a major initiative to provide user-friendly services to its vast customer base
  • Logistics posts, retail post services are other new services which are now being provided
  • In order to provide fast and reliable postal service, the Department of posts has launched “Project Arrow”


Communication had progressed rapidly. Among the most development of telecommunication which includes telephone services and tele-services is most significant. India had a total of only 321 telephone exchanges with about 8,200 working connections during the time of independence. There were only 338 long distance public call offices and 3,324 telegraph offices. By the end of October, 2012, India had 935 million connections. The number of telephones is expected to reach 600 million by the end of 2012. In 2011, in the rural areas, more than 5.8 lakhs Village Public Telephones (VPTs) have been provided. A number of value-added services like radio paging services, cellular mobile telephone service, electronic mail, public mobile radio trunked service, voice mail etc. have been started. The broadband subscribers have increased from 0.49 lakh in December 2004 to more than 10.7 million in 2010. Regulatory framework and functions are carried out by Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) and now, the National Internet Exchange of India (NIXI) has been set up to ensure that internet traffic originated and destined for India, is routed within India. India’s telephone network is the second largest in the world (after China) with a tele density of 76.75%. While tele density in rural areas is 37.5%, the urban tele density shot up to 159% in October, 2012. Foreign direct investment ceiling has been raised to 74%. National Telecom Policy (NTP) was announced in 2012, endeavours to create an investors friendly environment for attracting additional investments in the sector apart from generating manifold employment opportunities in various segments of the sector. Availability of affordable and effective communications for the citizens is the main aim of the policy.

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