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Computer Language

A computer language is the means by which instructions and data are transmitted to computers. Languages are divided into two categories:-
  • Low level language
    • Machine language:- In machine language programs can be developed in binary language (0 or 1). It is also known as binary language.
    • Assembly language:- It is known as symbolic language. It is a low level language programming language using the human readable instruction of the CPU. It is written as:-
      move ab, cd
      move ax, 50
  • High level Language:- Programmer can write code in simple English language. It is very user friendly as compare to low level language. E.g: c, c++, pascal, fortran, cobol, basic, prolog, java etc.

Elements of a Programming Language

To learn programming language requires understanding of concepts such as representations of different types of data in computer. There are various methods of expressing mathematical and logical relationship for inputting, processing and outputting of data.
  • Variables, Constants, Data Type, Array and Expressions:- These are the smallest component of programming language.
  • Data Type:- In computer programming language, the term data refers to anything and everything processed by the computer. Data type defines a set of related values/integers, number with fraction, characters and a set of specific operations that can be performed on those values. e.g int for integer value, char for character value. 
  • Variable:- Variable is a character or group of characters assign by the programmer to a single memory location and used in t he program as the name of that memory location in order to access the value stored in it. e.g int a, char a; 
  • Constant:- It has fixed value. String constant is simply a sequence of character. The numeric constant can be integer representing whole quantities or a number. e.g int A = 10; char A = ‘hello’;
  • Array:- An array is a collection of same type of data (either string or numeric), all of which are referenced by the same name. Normally two types of array are used.
  • Expressions:- Every computer language specify as in which various arithmetic operators are evaluated in a given expressions. An expression may contain operators such as *, +.-, /, (), ^. E.g 2 + 4*8(4 - 6/3)

Software Package

Software package refers to an application program developed for sale to the general public. It is a bundle of programs that can suit general requirements of user. E.g Talley, payroll system, notepad etc.

Suite:- Group of packages is known as suite. E.g MS-Office, Multimedia Suite.
Word-Processor MS-Word, NotePad, Word-Pad etc. Word Star IV, V
Spreadsheet MS-Excel LOTUS 123
Presentation Package MS-PowerPoint Haverd’s Graphics
Introduction to open source:- Open source technology has existed almost as long as computers. Technology is considered to be “open source” when the software code, that is used to make it, is provided to the user along with the software. E.g OpenOffice, Firefox, My SQL, VLC etc.

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