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Solved Examples


In each question below is given a passage followed by several inferences. You have to examine each inference separately in the context of the passage and decide upon its degree of truth or falsity.


Mark your answer as:

  1. If the inference is ‘definitely true’ i.e., it directly follows from the facts given in the passage;
  2. If the inference is ‘probably true’ though not definitely true in the light of the facts given;
  3. If you think the data are inadequate i.e., from the facts given you cannot say whether the inference is likely to be true or false.
  4. If you think the inference is ‘probably false’ though not definitely false in the light of facts given; and
  5. If you think the inference is ‘definitely false’ i.e., it contradicts the given facts.
Question 1 to 5

India needs higher investment in the port sector and still lags far behind international ports in container traffic, though there has been considerable growth in this segment over the past few years. There is a need to continually benchmark Indian ports against the best ports worldwide and continue to engage in policy efforts so as to attain prices per container of port services which are the lowest in the world. The average turn-around time for ships docking at most of the ports in India has been falling for the past three years. However, pre-berthing time has been marginally increasing over the years.

  1. The best port in the world is located in the United States of America.
  2. Indian ports have not been graded so far on the international standard.
  3. India ports need considerable development to match with the best ports n the world.
  4. Pre-berthing time is gradually decreasing over the years.
  5. Indian ports offer the lowest price per container as service charges.
Questions 6 to 10

Cotton Acreage in India during the current year has fallen by 10% as cotton growers had moved on cultivation of other cash crops. This is the result of cotton glut in the world markets in post-September 11 and the consequent slowdown in the world economy. But this scenario brought with it benefits to one segment of the industry – yarn manufacturers, as they get higher prices for their produce. Some yarn manufacturers too had stocked up on low priced cotton last year. The combined effect of all this evident in the rise I net profits and net margins of yarn manufacturers.

  1. Land used for growing cotton in India is conducive to grow other cash crops.
  2. The farmers will again grow cotton next year due to increased price of cotton yarn.
  3. There has been shortage of cotton in the world market last year.
  4. There has been a huge drop in the supply of cotton during the current year.
  5. World economy witnessed an upward trend during pre-September 11 period.
Questions 11 to 15

Pollution amounts to slow murder. Regular exposure to industrial and vehicular pollution leads to life threatening diseases like asthma, heart problems, cancer and various other disorders. Therefore, nobody has the right to pollute, rich or poor. Industrial and vehicular pollution are growing rapidly across the country. It is not just metropolitan centres that are heavily polluted today but also small and medium towns. Pollution is growing faster than the economy. This is because the western technological model, built on heavy use of energy and materials, is an inherently highly toxic model. It produces huge amounts of toxic pollutants, which can be controlled if there is careful choice of technology and there is considerable discipline in its use.

  1. The industries which use higher level of energy create more pollution.
  2. The spread of pollution has gathered momentum in the recent past.
  3. The smaller industrial units contribute proportionately higher pollution.
  4. The pollution level in the western world is considerably more than in India.
  5. Proper planning in use of modern technology leads to less pollution in the environment.

Detailed Explanations


Ans.1: (C) Data inadequate


There is no mention about the best port being in United States of America. It can be anywhere in the world.

Ans.2: (B) 
Probably true


The whole paragraph points towards the lagging behind of the Indian ports, according to international standards. But nowhere in the paragraph “grading” term has been used so the statement is probably true according to the trend of the paragraph.

Ans.3: (A) 
Definitely true


This is the conclusion of the paragraph, and, hence definitely true.

Ans.4: (E) 
Definitely false


This inference states a fact exactly opposite to the fact mentioned in the paragraph. The pre berthing time has been “marginally increasing”.

Ans.5: (E) The second line of the paragraph mentions “to continue to engage in policy efforts so as to attain prices per container which are lowest in the world”. That means it hasn’t been achieved at present. So, inference is definitely false.


Ans.6: (A): Definitely true


In the first statement, it is mentioned that cotton growers had moved on to the cultivation of other cash crops. This shows that growing cash crops on that land is conducive or suitable.

Ans.7: (B) Since the paragraph shows the benefits and increased margins for yarn manufacturers, the farmers might be motivated to grow cotton next year. Since it is a prediction of future, it will be probably true.

Ans.8: (E) The paragraph mentions a glut in the market past September 11. It shows the excess of cotton in the market. Hence the inference is definitely false as the given inference is totally opposite the fact mentioned in the paragraph.

Ans.9: (B) Since the data regarding supply of cotton during the current year is not available, the inference cannot be definitely stated. Passage shows a 10% fall in acreage of cotton, which may lead to a little drop in the supply. Also the trend of the previous years might result in a drop of supply. But “Huge drop” cannot be assured of. Hence probably true.

Ans.10: (C) The passage gives information about post September-11 data. In the pre September time, the trend cannot be predicted as data is not available.


Ans.11: (A) The passage talks about western technological model based on heavy use of energy which is an inherently high toxic model. Hence the inference that industries using heavy energy create more pollution is definitely true.

Ans.12: (A) The passage mentions phrases like “pollution growing faster than economy” and “rapidly” shows that pollution has gathered momentum in recent past. Inference is definitely true.

Ans.13: (D) The passage talks about heavy use of energy by industries producing huge amount of toxic pollutants, which are probably larger industrial units. So, proportionally smaller industries should produce lesser pollution. Hence the inference is probably false.

Ans.14: (c) There is no data regarding pollution levels in the western world. The passage talks about use of western technological model in India which may or may not be used in Western countries. Hence, data inadequate

Ans.15: (a) The last line of the passage talks about careful choice of technology which would control the pollution, hence the inference is definitely true.

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