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Hardware components of the computer consists of all the electronic components and electromechanical devices that comprise the physical devices of computer. The hardware of computer is  divided into four major parts:-


1)  Central Processing unit(CPU):- It contain an arithmetic and logic unit for manipulating data, a number of registered for storing data, and control unit for fetching and executing instructions.

2)  Memory:- It contain data and instruction before execution and after execution. It is call  random access memory because CPU can access any location randomly without effecting the other location.

3)  Input Output Processor(IOP):- It contain electronic circuit  for communication and controlling the transfer of information and the outside devices like input output devices.

4)  Input Output devices:- They are use to give information to the computer and display output like keyboard, printer, visual display unit(VDU).



 Block Diagram Of Digital Computer

Logic Gate:-
 All the data in computer is represent in binary form i.e 0 and 1.All the computer components like RAM, ALU, CU  and registered are made of Gate. There are different type of gate which perform different function e.g AND gated, OR gate NOT Gate, etc. Therefore we can say that logic gate are the main building block of digital computer.


Memory System: All the devices which are use to store information in computer is call memory system. Data and instruction is store in memory before processing i.e is before going to the CPU. In computer we use different type of memory because some memory are volatile but fast but some are non volatile but slow .To maintain the efficiency of computer we use different type of memory Following are the hierarchy.


Memory Hierarchy


CPU Register:- They are small memory location which reside in CPU, They are fast and small. They are generally use to store data and instruction temporarily.

Cache Memory:- It is a fast used between main memory and CPU. It is an electronic memory. It is size is smaller than main memory.

Main Memory:-
It is also an electronic memory. All the program before execution is loaded in main memory. Main memory is consist of two parts


a) RAM(Random Access Memory):- It is read and write memory. It is consist of flip-flop. It is volatile memory. There are diffenet type of Ram 1) SRAM 2) DRAM


b) ROM(Read only Memory):- It is non volatile memory. It store those program which are essential to boot the program. It consist of combinational circuit. There are different type of Rom Like PROM,EPROM, EEPROM, Flash memory.


Secondary Memory:- Secondary Memory is a permanent storage device. It is non volatile memory ,which can store data when there is no power. Secondary storage are of two type i) Magnetic ii)Optical


Magnetic Memory:- Magnetic material is use to construct Magnetic memory. Eg

Magnetic disk, Magnetic tape, Floppy.


Optical Memory:- CD-ROM,WORM(Write once and read many),DVD(Digital video disk)


HDD(Hard disc derive):- It is most commonly used secondary storage device. It is made of magnetic material. It consist of number of platter. It use a Technique called RAID(Random Array of independent disc or Random Array of inexpensive disk). It has different level Which is use in different application.



Optical disks share a major part among the secondary storage devices.Blu ray Disc is a next .generation optical disc format. The technology utilizes a blue laser diode operating at a wavelength of 405 nm to read and write data. Because it uses a blue laser it can store enormous more amounts of data on it than was ever possible. Data is stored on Blu .Ray disks in the form of tiny ridges on the surface of an opaque 1.1 .millimetre .thick substrate. This lies beneath a transparent 0.1mm protective layer. With the help of Blu .ray recording devices it is possible to record up to 2.5 hours of very high quality audio and video on a single BD.

Blu ray also promises some added security, making ways for copyright protections. Blu .ray discs can have a unique ID written on them to have copyright protection I nside the recorded streams. Blu .ray disc takes the DVD technology one step further, just by using a laser with a nice color.


Pen derive:- A flash drive consists of a small printed circuit board carrying the circuit elements and a USB connector, insulated electrically and protected inside a plastic, metal, or rubberized case which can be carried in a pocket or on a key chain, for example. The USB connector may be protected by a removable cap or by retracting into the body of the drive, although it is not likely to be damaged if unprotected. Most flash drives use a standard type-A USB connection allowing plugging into a port on a personal computer, but drives for other interfaces also exist.


USB flash drives draw power from the computer via the USB connection. Some devices combine the functionality of a digital audio player with USB flash storage; they require a battery only when used to play music.

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