Coupon Accepted Successfully!


TCP/IP Model

The TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) is a suite of protocols. It is called as Universal Protocol because it is platform independent. It is also a layered framework having four layers:-


Layer 4 – Application Layer

It enables network access to the user. Following are some of the protocols defined here:-

FTP(File Transfer Protocol)- It is responsible for reliable delivery of files on the network. It uses TCP.

HTTP(Hyper Text Transfer Protocol)- It permits the user to upload and upload webpages through browser. It is a connection less protocol.

SMTP(Simple Mail transfer Protocol)- It is used to send mails from client to server. It uses TCP.

Layer 3 – Transport Layer


It encapsulates raw data received from application layer into data segments and performs error control and flow control. It is represented by the two protocols i.e TCP & UDP.

TCP(Transmission Control Protocol)- It is a connection oriented protocol. First a connection is established between the sender and the receiver and then data is sent across the network. It gives the data segments proper sequence numbers for reordering at the destination side and also the acknowledgment nos. Are given for the data packets received. So it is a reliable protocol.

UDP(User Datagram Protocol)It is an unreliable, connectionless protocol i.e no reliable connection is established between sender & receiver before data transmission. It is used for client- server type requests where prompt delivery of requests-replies is more important than accurate delivery.

Layer 2 - Internet Layer


Here, the information segments obtained from transport layer are encapsulated into data packets, the path for the information to take place is decided.Here IP (Internet Protocol) is used for transmission which supports protocols such as ARP, RARP, ICMP,IGMP etc.

IP (Internet Protocol)- It is a connectionless protocol and is responsible for breaking up of data into small packets which can take different paths to reach the destination, can reach out of sequence & can be duplicated too.

ARP(Address Resolution Protocol)- It associates Logical Address with the MAC address of the machine which is imprinted on the network interface card.

RARP(Reverse Address Resolution Protocol)- It associates Physical address with the Logical address. It is used when a computer is connected on the network for the first time or a diskless computer is booted.

ICMP(Internet Control Message Protocol)- It is used to send notifications for the problems related to data packets back to the sender.

Layer 1 – Network Interface Layer

It is responsible for breaking down the data packets from Internet layer into frames which are then converted into bits for transmission across the physical media. Here, Ethernet, FDDI, Token ring etc. Some of the standards that are defined for data transmission.


Test Your Skills Now!
Take a Quiz now
Reviewer Name