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Oxidation of alcohols

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Secondary alcohols can also be oxidized by aluminium 1-butoxide [(CH3)3CO]3Al, in acetone. The reaction is called Oppenauer oxidation. In the presence of p-benzoquinone solvent, 1° alcohol can also be oxidized to aldehyde on distillation.

Dehydrogenation of alcohols

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By heating calcium or barium salts of carboxylic acids

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Using acid chloride

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Oxidation of methyl benzenes (for aromatic aldehydes only)

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Reimer–Tiemann reaction (for phenolic aldehydes only)

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Stephen’s method (only for aldehydes)

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Sommelet reaction (only for aldehydes)

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Ring ketones from dicarboxylic acids

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By ozonolysis

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From alkynes (for ketones mostly)

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Acetoacetic ester synthesis (for ketones only)

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