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Holes In Semiconductors

When an electron is removed from a covalent bond, it leaves a vacancy behind. An electron from a neighboring atom can move into this vacancy, leaving the neighbour with a vacancy. In this way, the vacancy formed is called hole (or cotter) and can travel through the material and serve as an additional current carriers.
  • A hole is considered as a seat of positive charge, having magnitude of charge equal to that of an electron.
  • Holes act as virtual charge, although there is no physical charge on it.
  • Effective mass of hole is more than electron.
  • Mobility of hole is less than electron.

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