# Streamline flow

Streamline flow of a liquid is that flow in which each element of the liquid passing through a point travels along the same path and with the same velocity as the preceeding element passes through that point.

A streamline may be defined as the path, straight or curved, the tangent to which at any point gives the direction of the flow of liquid at that point (Fig. 5).

Fig. 5

The two streamlines cannot cross each other. Greater the crowding of streamlines at a place, greater is the velocity of liquid particles at that place.

# Laminar flow

If a liquid is flowing over a horizontal surface with a steady flow and moves in the form of layers of different velocities which do not mix with each other, then the flow of liquid is called laminar flow.

In this flow the velocity of liquid flow is always less than the critical velocity of the liquid. The laminar flow is generally used synonymously with streamlined flow.

# Turbulent flow

When a liquid moves with a velocity greater than its critical velocity, the motion of the particles of liquid becomes disordered or irregular. Such a flow is called a turbulent flow (Fig. 6).

Fig. 6

In a turbulent flow, the path and the velocity of the particles of the liquid change continuously and haphazardly with time from point to point.